If you want to train the biceps brachii at first pay attention to its origin and insertion.
The muscle fibres have longitudinal direction. The muscle acts on three joints: shoulder, elbow and proximal radioulnar. So, it flexes the forearm at the elbow joint, flexes upper arm at the shoulder joint (if the elbow is stabilized by the contraction of the triceps brachii), and supinates the forearm at the elbow joint (especially if the forearm is initially pronated). But the main action of this muscle is flexion of the elbow. Thus, for isolated training of the biceps brachii we have to contract it by flexion of the elbow. There is no difference what kinds of the flexions we will do. You may choose any exercise:
Remember that this muscle increases uniformly (so it is impossible to increase only its outer or inner and upper or lower portions). Also it doesn`t increase in width (separately from its volume). We can not change the form of the biceps (it is determined genetically). There are many systems of the biceps training which include the following parameters: the optimal weight, the number of exercise cycles, the number of repetitions in each cycle, the intervals between the cycles, the number of training days in a week. For example, you may use the classic biceps training program which is created by the trainer of Arnold Schwarzenegger Joe Weider (see from 25 min):
The triceps brachii covers the posterior side of the humerus and makes around 60% of the total upper arm volume.
The triceps crosses two joints, shoulder and elbow, and acts on them extending the upper arm at the shoulder joint and forearm at the elbow joint. Its chief action is the extension of the elbow hence, to train the triceps we need to extend forearm. As the triceps brachii resembles the biceps in structure, it has the same features of the training (see the training of the biceps brachii). Here we may see the basic triceps exercises:
And to understand the system approach, see the triceps training program of Joe Weider (see from 18 min):
The sural muscles belong to the muscles which are difficult to increase. The posterior sural muscles form two layers: superficial and deep. The superficial layer consists of the gastrocnemius and soleus. The gastrocnemius is the most superficial but the soleus comprises about 75% of the sural volume. These muscles join to form the Achilles tendon which is attached to the calcaneal tuberosity. Both muscles perform the plantar flexion. The gastrocnemius also rotates the knee inward and outward. Since it is attached above the knee joint, it shows the maximal power when the knee is extended, while the soleus shows the maximal power when the knee is flexed. Due to this our foot remains equally strong during walking or running when the leg alternately flexes and extends. Thus, this muscle group should be trained not only in standing but also in sitting. It is bad to overload these muscles, so train them twice a week. Train them in the end of a workout. Before training you may give them an aerobic load to warm up. Do small number of repetitions in a set (3-8); the number of sets 3-5. And gradually, from workout to workout increase the working weight. When you do the exercises, place your feet parallel to each other.
The exercises for the gastrocnemius: the rise on tiptoes in standing; the gym by feet in sport equipment .
The exercises for the soleus: the rise on tiptoes in sitting; the gym by feet with flexed knees.
And lastly: it is said that running is not good for the training of the lower limb muscles because it gives a great load to the knee and ankle joints. If you do the exercises with step-platform, be careful.
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