Questions what you should know1

1. Anatomical terminology. The structure of the typical vertebra.

2. The classification of the bones. The structure of the bones. The structure of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae and sacrum. The vertebral column.

3. The structure of the ribs and sternum. The thorax. 

4. General data of bone articulations.

5. The joints between the vertebrae, ribs and vertebrae, ribs and sternum, atlas and axis, atlas and skull.

 6. The structure of the bones of the shoulder girdle: scapula, clavicle. The structure of the humerus. The joints between the bones of the shoulder girdle: sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, shoulder.

7. The structure of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) and hand. The joints between these bones: elbow, radioulnar, wrist and joints of hand.

8. The structure of the pelvic bones. The structure of the femur. The joints between the pelvic girdle; the hip joint.

9. The structure of the leg bones (tibia and fibula), patella and foot. The joints between the leg bones: knee, tibiofibular, ankle. The joints of the foot.

Questons for Major Osteology

Practice Osteology

Practice Arthrosyndesmology

10.The structure of the frontal, occipital, parietal bones

11. The structure of the ethmoid and sphenoid bones

12. The structure of the temporal bone

13.  The structure of the bones of viscerocranium (facial bones): maxilla, mandible, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, hyoid bones, vomer, inferior nasal concha.

14. The structure of the whole skull (cranial fossae, nasal cavity, orbits, pterygopalatine fossa, temporal and infratemporal fossae). The joints between the skull bones   

Questions for Major Skull

Practical part for Major Skull

 

1. Anatomical terminology. The structure of the typical vertebra.

     Importance:

To understand topics of each further lesson, students should know the main anatomical terms in Latin and general characteristics of the vertebrae. The doctors are often faced with the pathology of the vertebral column therefore, any doctor should know the structure of a typical vertebra.

         

      Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Name and describe the axes and planes, used in anatomy.
  2. Name the main terms which are used for the spatial description of the anatomical objects.
  3. How many parts does the vertebral column include? How many vertebrae are in each of them?
  4. What functions does the vertebral column carry out?
  5. What parts of the skeleton do you know?
  6. Name the vertebral structures, typical of almost all the vertebrae.
  7. How are the vertebrae arranged in the body: where are their anterior (posterior) surfaces; superior (inferior) surfaces? How will you differentiate them? What part of the vertebra faces forwards (backwards)?
  8. Describe the function of the vertebral body. Describe  the function of the vertebral articular processes. Describe  the function of transverse and spinous processes.
  9. Describe the function of the vertebral foramina. What is the difference between the vertebral foramina, vertebral canal and intervertebral foramina?
  10. Describe  the function of the vertebral canal. Describe  the function of the intervertebral foramina.

 

      Practice:

  1. vertebral body, corpus vertebrae;
  2. vertebral arch, arcus vertebrae;
  3. pedicle of vertebral arch, pediculus arcus vertebrae;
  4. vertebral foramen, foramen vertebrale;
  5. vertebral canal, canalis vertebralis;
  6. spinous process, processus spinosus;
  7. transverse processes, processus transversus;
  8. superior articular process, processus articularis superior;
  9. inferior articular process, processus articularis inferior;
  10. superior vertebral notch, incisura vertebralis superior;
  11. inferior vertebral notch, incisura vertebralis inferior;
  12. intervertebral foramen, foramen intervertebrale

 

2. The classification of the bones. The structure of the bones. The structure of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae and sacrum. The vertebral column.

 

      Importance:

      Doctors often have to deal with different pathologies of the vertebral column (trauma, bone tuberculosis, tumor, pathological curves of the vertebral column and so on).  To know anatomy of the vertebral column is necessary for traumatologists, surgeons, doctors who treat osteo-articular tuberculosis and physiotherapeutist.

 

Before you start to study  the topic you need to know:

  1. The parts of the vertebral column.
  2. The structure of a typical vertebra.

 

      Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. How can the bones be classified? Classify the bones according to different principles.
  2. Describe the internal structure of the bones of the different types.
  3. Describe the external structure of a bone: what projections or other structures can be found on the bones, and what are their functions?
  4. What functions of the bones do you know?
  5. Describe the distinctive features of the cervical vertebrae.
  6. What is the prominent vertebra? Why it has such a name?
  7. What cervical vertebra has carotid tubercle? Where is the tubercle located? Why the tubercle has such a name?
  8. The spinous processes of which cervical vertebrae are bifurcated?
  9. What is the function of the transverse foramina? Which cervical vertebrae have these foramina?
  10. Describe the distinctive features of the atlas. What parts, typical of the other vertebrae, are absent in the atlas? And what structures are present instead of them? What special function the atlas carries out?
  11. Describe the distinctive features of the axis. What is the function of the axial dens?
  12. Describe the function of the articular facets on the atlas and axis.
  13. Describe the distinctive features of the thoracic vertebrae.
  14. What are the differences between the I, X, XI, XII thoracic vertebrae and others? Why these differences appeared?
  15. Describe the distinctive features of the lumbar vertebrae.
  16. Describe the sacrum. What structures appear on the sacrum by the fusion of the sacral vertebrae? Describe the function of the sacral foramina. Describe the function of the auricular surfaces. Describe the function of the sacral tuberosity. Describe the function of the sacral articular processes and horns. How is possible to differentiate the anterior surface of the sacrum from posterior one? Where is superior part of the sacrum and where is its inferior part? How the sacrum is arranged in the pelvis?
  17. Describe the coccyx. How many vertebrae does it include? What is the function of the coccygeal horns?
  18. What is the total length of the vertebral column?
  19. Describe the normal curves of the vertebral column? Why are they formed? In what plane are they arranged? How many curves has the vertebral column in normal? What are the kyphoses and lordoses? What parts of the vertebral column are curved as kyphoses and what as lordoses?
  20. When and why the curves the vertebral column appear? 
  21. What is the scoliosis? Why it can develop? How is it possible to prevent the the scoliosis development? (see the videomaterial about scoliosis)

See the lecture Osteology

Practice:

Cervical Vertebrae 

  1. transverse foramen, foramen transversarium;
  2. groove for spinal nerve, sulcus nervi spinalis;
  3. anterior tubercle of transverse process, tuberculum anterius;
  4. posterior tubercle of transverse process, tuberculum posterius.;
  5. carotid tubercle, tuberculum caroticum;
  6. anterior arch of atlas, arcus anterior atlantis;
  7. posterior arch of atlas, arcus posterior atlantis;
  8. anterior tubercle of atlas, tuberculum anterius;
  9. posterior tubercle of atlas, tuberculum posterius
  10. superior articular surface of atlas, facies articularis superioris;
  11. inferior articular surfaces of atas, facies articulares inferiors;
  12. groove for vertebral artery, sulcus arteriae vertebralis;
  13. dens, dens axis;
  14. anterior articular facet of dens, facies articularis anterior;
  15. posterior articular facet of dens, facies articularis posterior;
  16. superior articular facet of axis, facies articularis superior;

Thoracic Vertebrae

  1. superior costal facet (demi-facet), fovea costalis superior;
  2. inferior demi-facet, fovea costalis inferior;
  3. transverse costal facet, fovea costalis processus transverse;

Lumbar Vertebrae

  1. mammillary process, processus mamillaris;
  2. accessory process, processus accessories; 

Sacrum

  1. base of the sacrum, basis ossis sacri;
  2. apex of the sacrum, apex ossis sacri;
  3. pelvic surface, facies pelviсa;
  4. dorsal surface, facies dorsalis;
  5. superior articular processes, processus articulares superiores;
  6. sacral promontory, promontorium;
  7. transverse line, linea transversa;
  8. anterior sacral foramen, foramen sacrale anterius;
  9. posterior sacral foramen, foramen sacrale posterius;
  10. median sacral crest, crista sacralis mediana;
  11. intermediate sacral crest, crista sacralis intermedia;
  12. lateral sacral crest, crista sacralis lateralis;
  13. auricular surface, facies auricularis;
  14. sacral tuberosity, tuberositas ossis sacri;
  15. sacral canal, canalis caralis;
  16. sacral hiatus, hiatus sacralis;
  17. sacral horn, cornu sacrale;

      Coccyx

  1. coccygeal horn, cornu coccygeum;

X-rays:

  1. vertebral body, corpus vertebrae;
  2. spinous process, processus spinosus;
  3. transverse processes, processus transversus;
  4. superior articular process, processus articularis superior;
  5. inferior articular process, processus articularis inferior;
  6. superior vertebral notch, incisura vertebralis superior;
  7. inferior vertebral notch, incisura vertebralis inferior;
  8. intervertebral foramen, foramen intervertebrale;
  9. dens, dens axis;
  10. base of the sacrum, basis ossis sacri;
  11. apex of the sacrum, apex ossis sacri;
  12. anterior sacral foramina, foramina sacralia anteriores;
  13. coccyx, coccyx

You should be able to differentiate the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the X-ray pictures and to find the vertebrae according to their ordinal number.

 

3. The structure of the ribs and sternum. The thorax. 

Importance:

       The thorax contains the vital organs and actively participates in breathing. To treat the thoracic organs diseases properly, to understand the mechanism of breathing mobements doctor needs to know the anatomy of the ribs, sternum and of the whole chest.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The classification and structure of the bones.
  2. The structure of the thoracic vertebrae and whole vertebral column.

         Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Describe the parts of the rib. How the ribs are classified? How will you differentiate the anterior part of the rib from the posterior; inferior border from the superior; inner surface from outer? How will you differentiate the right ribs from the left?
  2. What is the function of the costal head and costal tubercle? What is the function of the costal cartilage? What does the costal groove contain?
  3. What are the true ribs (false, floating)? How many ribs exist on each side?
  4. Describe the differences between the I, X, XI, XII ribs and others. Why these ribs have specific features?
  5. Describe the parts of the sternum. How the sternum is classified? What is the function of its notches? What is the sternal angle?
  1. Describe the structure of the thorax. Describe the function of the thoracic cage. What organs does it contain? Which bones form the thorax? What bones limit the superior and inferior thoracic apertures? Which organs pass through the superior aperture? Which muscle closes the inferior aperture? What are the pulmonary grooves? What is the infrasternal angle? What ribs form the costal arch? What are the intercostal spaces? How will you count the ribs and intercostal spaces in a living person?
  2.  What types of the thoracic cages do you know? Which signs help us to define the type of the thorax? How are they associated with the body types? What is the practical importance of the types of the thoracic cages?

Practice:

Ribs:

  1. true ribs, costae verae;
  2. false ribs, costae spuriae;
  3. floating ribs, costae fluctuantes;
  4. head of rib, caput costae;
  5. crest of head of rib, crista capitis costae;
  6. neck of rib, collum costae;
  7. crest of neck of rib, crista colli costae;
  8. body (shaft) of rib, corpus costae;
  9. articular part of tubercle of rib, facies articularis tuberculi costae;
  10. non-articular part of tubercle of rib, eminentia tuberculi costae;
  11. angle of rib, angulus costae;
  12. groove of rib, sulcus costae;
  13. scalene tubercle of I rib, tuberculum musculi scaleni anterioris;
  14. groove for subclavian artery of I rib, sulcus arteriae subclaviae;
  15. groove for subclavian vein of I rib, sulcus venae subclaviae;
  16. anterior end of rib, extremitas anterior;
  17. posterior end of rib, extremitas posterior;
  18. costal cartilage, cartilago costalis;

      Sternum:

  1. body of sternum, corpus sterni;
  2. manubrium of sternum, manubrium sterni;
  3. xiphoid process, processus xiphoideus;
  4. sternal angle, angulus sterni;
  5. jugular notch, incisura jugularis;
  6. clavicular notch, incisura clavicularis;
  7. costal notch, incisura costalis.

Thorax:

  1. pulmonary grooves, sulci pulmonales;
  2. costal arch, arcus costalis;
  3. infrasternal angle, angulus infrasternalis;
  4. superior thoracic aperture, apertura thoracis superior;
  5. inferior thoracic aperture, apertura thoracis inferior;
  6. intercostal spaces, spatia intercostali

X-rays skills:

  1. true ribs, costae verae;
  2. false ribs, costae spuriae;
  3. floating ribs, costae fluctuantes;
  4. head of rib, caput costae;
  5. neck of rib, collum costae;
  6. body (shaft) of rib, corpus costae;
  7. anterior end of rib, extremitas anterior;
  8. posterior end of rib, extremitas posterior;
  9. intercostal spaces, spatia intercostales

You should be able to find the anterior and posterior ends of the ribs in X-ray picture and count the ribs to define their serial numbers.

4. The general data of bone articulations.

      Importance:

      To know the anatomy of the joints (and their additional structures) is important for various specialists. In joint diseases, the conservative and operative treatment is used. Surgical interventions are used in joint injuries, intra-articular fractures, damage to the intra-articular ligaments, discs or menisci. The treatment directed to the restoration of motion in joints (physiotherapy), requires the knowledge of the joint structure and their biomechanical characteristics. The sport medicine and coaching job also require the knowledge of the joint anatomy.

    Before you start to study  the topic you need to know:

  1. The general structure of the bones.
  2. The parts of the skeleton.

     Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. What types of the bone junctions are distinguished?
  2. Name the groups of the solid joints.
  3. Give the definition of the fibrous joints. What types of the fibrous joints do you know?
  4. Give the description and examples of each type of the fibrous joints.
  5. Give the definition of the cartilaginous joints. What types of the cartilaginous joints do you know? Give the definition of the symphysis.
  6. Give the description and examples of each type of the cartilaginous joints.
  7. Give the definition of the osseous joints. Give the examples of such joints.
  8. Give the definition of the synovial joints.
  9. Name three main signs that define a synovial joint.
  10. Give the characteristic of the articular surfaces.
  11. Give the characteristic of the articular cavity.
  12. Give the characteristic of the articular capsule.
  13. Name the accessory structures which can be found in the synovial joints. Describe each of these structures.
  14. Describe the existing axes of movements and the types of movements at synovial joints.
  15. Describe the principles of the synovial joint classification.
  16. Describe uni-axial joints. What types of the uni-axial joints do you know? Give the examples.
  17. Describe bi-axial joints. What types of the bi-axial joints do you know? Give the examples.
  18. Describe multi-axial joints. What types of the multi-axial joints do you know? Give the examples.
  19. Give the definition of the simple joints. Give the examples.
  20. Give the definition of the compound joints. Give the examples.
  21. Give the definition of the combined joints. Give the examples.
  22. What factors determine the range of movements at synovial joints?

See the lecture Arthrosyndesmology

To watch the video for the topic see Videomaterials

5. The joints between the vertebrae; ribs and vertebrae; ribs and sternum; atlas and axis; atlas and skull.

          Importance:

   Joints between the bones of the trunk help to support the position of the body, participate in the movements of body parts relatively to each other (in particular, the skull and ribs relatively to the vertebral column).

   Frequent damage and degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and associated surgery require to know the ligamentous apparatus surrounding the joints in the vertebral column; the joints connecting the vertebral column with the skull and ribs; axes and the amplitude of motion at the joints.

 

Before you start to study  the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure of the thoracic vertebrae, atlas and axis, the ribs and sternum.
  2. The general data of bone junctions.

         Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. What types of the joints between the individual vertebrae do you know?
  2. How are the vertebral bodies connected?
  3. How are the vertebral arches connected?
  4. How are the vertebral processes connected?
  5. Name the short and long ligaments of the vertebrae.
  6. Where are the longitudinal ligaments of the vertebral column located and attached?
  7. Describe the function of the longitudinal ligaments of the vertebral column.
  8. Where are short ligaments of the vertebral column attached?
  9. Describe the function of the short ligaments of the vertebral column.
  10. Describe the intervertebral joints according to the classifications of synovial joints.
  11. Describe the connections between the last lumbar vertebra and sacrum, and the sacrum and the coccyx.
  12. What movements may occur in the vertebral column?
  13. Describe the joints between the atlas and skull according to the classifications of synovial joints. Which joints are they combined with? What parts of the atlas and of the skull articulate to form these joints? What ligaments reinforce them? Describe their attachment. What movements occur at these joints?
  14. Describe the joints between the atlas and the axis according to the classifications of synovial joints. Which joints are they combined with? What parts of the atlas and of the axis articulate to form these joints? What ligaments reinforce them? Describe their attachment. What movements occur at these joints?
  15. What bones are the true ribs connected with? How many synovial joint exist between each rib and vertebra? Describe the joints between the ribs and vertebrae according to the classifications. Which joints are they combined with? What parts of the ribs and of the vertebrae articulate to form these joints? Which ligaments reinforce them? Describe their attachment. What movements occur at these joints?
  16. Describe the joints between true ribs and sternum according to the classifications. Which joints are they combined with? What parts of the ribs and of the sternum articulate to form these joints? Which ligaments reinforce them? Describe their attachment. What movements occur at these joints? What is the difference between the joint of the I rib with the sternum and of other true ribs?
  17. What bones are the false and floating ribs connected with?

Practice:

  1. intervertebral disc, discus intervertebralis;
  2. anterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum longitudinale anterius;
  3. posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum longitudinale posterius;
  4. ligamentum flavum, ligamentum flavum;
  5. interspinous ligament, ligamentum interspinale;
  6. supraspinous ligament, ligamentum supraspinale;
  7. nuchal ligament, ligamentum nuchae;
  8. intertransverse ligament, ligamentum intertransversarium;
  9. intervertebral joints, articulationes intervertebrales;
  10. atlantoocipital jonts, articulationes atlantooccipitales;
  11. median atlantoaxial joint, articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana;
  12. lateral atlantoaxial joints, articulationes atlantoaxiales laterales dextra et sinistra;
  13. anterior atlantooccipital membrane, membrana atlantooccipitalis anterior;
  14. posterior atlantooccipital membrane, membrana atlantooccipitalis posterior;
  15. transverse atlantal ligament, ligamentum transversum atlantis;
  16. cruciate ligament of atlas, ligamentum cruciforme atlantis;
  17. alar ligaments, ligamenta alaria;
  18. apical ligament of dens, ligamentum apicis dentis;
  19. tectorial membrane, membrana tectoria;
  20. cervical and lumbar lordoses;
  21. thoracic and sacral kyphoses;
  22. joint of costal head, articulatio capitis costae;
  23. radiate ligament of costal head, ligamentum capitis costae radiatum;
  24. costotransverse joint, articulatio costotransversaria;
  25. costotransverse ligament, ligamentum costotransversarium;
  26. sternocostal jonts, articulationes sternocostales;
  27. radiate sternocostal ligaments, ligamenta sternocostalia radiate;
  28. sternal membrane, membrana sterni;
  29. interchondral joints, articulationes interchondrales;
  30. internal intercostal membrane, membrana intercostalis interna;
  31. external intercostal membrane, membrana intercostalis externa;
  32. pulmonary grooves, sulci pulmonales;
  33. costal arch, arcus costalis;
  34. infrasternal angle, angulus infrasternalis;
  35. superior thoracic aperture, apertura thoracis superior;
  36. inferior thoracic aperture, apertura thoracis inferior;
  37. intercostal spaces, spatia intercostalia

 

6. The structure of the bones of the shoulder girdle: scapula and clavicle. The structure of the humerus. The joints between the bones of the shoulder girdle: sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, shoulder joints.

       Importance:

       It is important to know the structure of the clavicle, scapula and humerus to study the next anatomy topics and to study radiology, surgery and traumatology. In clinical practice the fractures of these bones are often observed; this requires proper diagnostics and correct choice of treatment strategy. The noted joints provide the connection between the upper extremities and the skeleton of the trunk; they also provide the movements of the arm, necessary for human labor. So the knowledge of the structure of the joints between sternum and clavicle, scapula and clavicle, scapula and humerus allows doctors to make correct diagnosis and to treat properly.

Before you start to study  the topic you need to know:

  1. The classification of the bones.
  2. The parts of the skeleton.
  3. The general data of the bone joints.

 

   Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Describe the clavicle. How the clavicle can be classified? What signs can help to differentiate the right clavicle from the left one? What is the function of the sternal and acromial facets of the clavicle? Describe the function of the clavicular projections (tubercle, line, tuberosity etc).
  2. Describe the scapula. How the scapula can be classified? What signs can help to differentiate the right scapula from the left one? How many surfaces, borders and angles does it have? How will you find each of them? What is the peculiarity of the lateral angle? What is the function of the glenoid cavity? What is the function of the scapular notch? Which muscles occupy all the scapular fossae? What is the function of the acromion?
  3. Describe the attachment and function of the false scapular ligaments.
  4. Describe the humerus. What is the type of the humerus according to the bone classification? How will you find the proximal and distal epiphyses of the humerus? How will you find the anterior and posterior, medial and lateral sides of the humerus? What signs can help to differentiate the right humerus from the left one? What is the function of the humeral head? What are the differences between the anatomical and surgical necks? What is the humeral condyle? What is the function of the humeral trochlea and capitulum? Why the fossae of the humerus are formed (radial, coronoid, olecranon)? What nerves are placed on the humerus? In which places do they lay? What ligaments and muscles are attached to the humeral tubercles and tuberosity, to the humeral body, to the epicondyles?
  5. Describe the sternoclavicular joint according to the joint classifications. What parts of the sternum and clavicle articulate to form the joint? What accessory structures does it have? What ligaments reinforce it? Describe their attachment. What movements occur at the joint?
  6. Describe the acromioclavicular joint according to the joint classifications. What parts of the scapula and clavicle articulate to form the joint? What accessory structures may it have? What ligaments reinforce the joint? Describe their attachment. What movements occur at the joint?
  7. Describe the shoulder joint according to the joint classifications. What parts of the scapula and humerus articulate to form the joint? What accessory structures does it have? What ligaments reinforce it? Describe their attachment. What movements occur at the joint? Why the dislocations at the shoulder joint often happen?

Practice:

Scapula

  1. inferior angle, angulus inferior;
  2. superior angle, angulus superior;
  3. lateral angle, angulus lateralis;
  4. medial border, margo medialis;
  5. lateral border, margo lateralis;
  6. superior border, margo superior;
  7. anterior (costal) surface, facies anterior seu costalis;
  8. subscapular fossa, fossa subscapularis;
  9. posterior surface, facies posterior;
  10. scapular spine, spina scapulae;
  11. supraspinous fossa, fossa supraspinata;
  12. infraspinous fossa, fossa infraspinata;
  13. glenoid cavity, cavitas glenoidalis;
  14. supraglenoid tubercle, tuberculum supraglenoidale;
  15. infraglenoid tubercle, tuberculum infraglenoidale;
  16. neck of scapula, collum scapulae;
  17. coracoid process, processus coracoideus;
  18. scapular notch, incisura scapulae;
  19. acromion, acromion;

Clavicle

  1. body, corpus claviculae;
  2. sternal end, extremitas sternalis;
  3. acromial end, extrimitas acromialis;
  4. sternal facet, facies articularis sternalis;
  5. acromial facet, facies articularis acromialis;
  6. impression of costoclavicular ligament, impressio ligamenti costoclavicularis;
  7. conoid tubercle, tuberculum conoideum;
  8. trapezoid line, linea trapezoidea;

 Humerus

  1. body (shaft), corpus humeri;
  2. proximal epiphysis, epiphysis proximalis;
  3. distal epiphysis, epiphysis distalis;
  4. head of humerus, caput humeri;
  5. anatomical neck, collum anatomicum;
  6. lesser tubercle, tuberculum minus;
  7. greater tubercle, tuberculum majus;
  8. crest of greater tubercle, crista tuberculi majoris;
  9. crest of lesser tubercles, crista tuberculi minoris;
  10. bicipital groove, sulcus intertubercularis;
  11. surgical neck, collum chirurgicum;
  12. posterior surface of body, facies posterior;
  13. anteromedial surface, facies anteromedialis;
  14. anterolateral surface, facies anterolateralis;
  15. deltoid tuberosity, tuberositas deltoidea;
  16. spiral groove (the groove for radial nerve), sulcus nervi radialis (sulcus spiralis);
  17. condyle of humerus, condylus humeri;
  18. trochlea of humerus, trochlea humeri;
  19. capitulum of humerus, capitulum humeri;
  20. coronoid fossa, fossa coronoidea;
  21. radial fossa, fossa radialis;
  22. olecranon fossa, fossa olecrani;
  23. medial epicondyle, epicondylus medialis;
  24. lateral epicondyle, epicondylus lateralis;
  25. groove for ulnar nerve, sulcus nervi ulnaris;
  26. medial and lateral supracondylar crests, crista supracondylaris medialis et crista supracondylaris lateralis.

JOINTS

  1. coracoacromial ligament, ligamentum coracoacromiale;
  2. superior transverse scapular ligament, ligamentum transversum scapulae superius;
  3. acromioclavicular joint, articulatio acromioclavicularis;
  4. acromioclavicular ligament, ligamentum acromioclaviculare;
  5. coracoclavicular ligament, ligamentum coracoclaviculare;
  6. sternoclavicular joint, articulatio sternoclavicularis;
  7. anterior sternoclavicular ligaments, ligamentum sternoclaviculare anterius;
  8. posterior sternoclavicular ligaments, ligamentum sternoclaviculare posterius;
  9. costoclavicular ligament, ligamentum costoclaviculare;
  10. humeral (shoulder) joint, articulatio humeri;
  11. coracohumeral ligament, ligamentum coracohumerale;
  12. glenohumeral ligaments, ligamenta glenohumeralia;

X-rays:

Scapula

  1. inferior angle, angulus inferior;
  2. superior angle, angulus superior;
  3. lateral angle, angulus lateralis;
  4. lateral border, margo lateralis;
  5. superior border, margo superior;
  6. glenoid cavity, cavitas glenoidalis;
  7. supraglenoid tubercle, tuberculum supraglenoidale;
  8. infraglenoid tubercle, tuberculum infraglenoidale;
  9. neck of scapula, collum scapulae;
  10. coracoid process, processus coracoideus;
  11. acromion, acromion;

Clavicle

  1. body, corpus claviculae;
  2. sternal end, extremitas sternalis;
  3. acromial end, extrimitas acromialis;

Humerus

  1. body (shaft), corpus humeri
  2. proximal epiphysis, epiphysis proximalis;
  3. distal epiphysis, epiphysis distalis;
  4.  head of humerus, caput humeri;
  5.  anatomical neck, collum anatomicum;
  6.  lesser tubercle, tuberculum minus;
  7.  greater tubercle, tuberculum majus;
  8. surgical neck, collum chirurgicum;
  9. condyle of humerus, condylus humeri;
  10. trochlea of humerus, trochlea humeri;
  11. capitulum of humerus, capitulum humeri;
  12. olecranon fossa, fossa olecrani;
  13.  medial epicondyle, epicondylus medialis;
  14.  lateral epicondyle, epicondylus lateralis;

     Joints

1.acromioclavicular joint, articulatio acromioclavicularis;

2.sternoclavicular joint, articulatio sternoclavicularis;

3.humeral (shoulder) joint, articulatio humeri

 

7. The structure of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) and hand bones. The joints between these bones: elbow, radioulnar, wrist and joints of hand.

 

Importance:

    Educational material of this topic is necessary to study the subsequent topics: joints of the upper limb, forearm and hand muscles, the topography of the upper limb. It is necessary to know the anatomy of the forearm bones in the practical work of traumatologists and surgeons, and doctors involved in the treatment of osteo-articular tuberculosis.

     The hand is constantly in contact with the labor instruments therefore, most often compared to other parts of the body is exposed to injury (cuts, bruises, burns, frostbite). These injuries often require surgical interventions.  So, the knowledge of this topic allows doctors to diagnose and treat properly.

Before you start to study  the topic you need to know:

  1. The classification of the bones.
  2. The parts of the skeleton.
  3. The structure of the humerus.
  4. The general data of the bone joints.

     Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Which bones form the forearm? How are they arranged in the forearm?
  2. Describe the radius. How to classify the radius? How will you differentiate the right radius from the left one? How to find the proximal and distal epiphyses of the radius? How to find the anterior and posterior, medial and lateral sides of the radius? Where is the radial head? What is its function? How many borders and surfaces has the radial body? What is the specific function of the interosseous border? What is the function of the carpal articular surface? What is the function of the articular circumference and ulnar notch? What ligaments and muscles are attached to the radial tuberosity and styloid process?
  3. Describe the ulna. How to classify the ulna? How will you differentiate the right ulna from the left one? How to find the proximal and distal epiphyses of the ulna? How to find the anterior and posterior, medial and lateral sides of the ulna? Where is the ulnar head? What is its function? How many borders and surfaces has the ulnar body? What is the specific function of the interosseous border? What is the function of the trochlear notch? What is the function of the articular circumference and radial notch? Which ligaments and muscles are attached to the ulnar tuberosity, supinator crest, styloid process?
  4. What parts does the hand consist of? Show the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the hand, the lateral and medial sides. Show the first, second and other fingers. Name the carpal bones (of the proximal and distal rows) in sequence. How to classify the carpal bones? What parts does each metacarpal bone consist of? How to classify the metacarpal bones? How many phalanges has each finger? How to classify the phalanges? What parts does each phalanx consist of?
  5. Which parts of the humerus, radius and ulna articulate to form the elbow joint? Describe the joint according to the joint classifications. Why this joint is compound? What three joint does it include? What movements is possible to do at each of these three joints? What movements is possible to do at the elbow joint? Why the movements at the elbow joint are not equal to the sum of the movements at those three joints? What ligaments reinforce the elbow joint? Describe their attachment.
  6. What types of the joints connect the radius and ulna? What parts of the radius and ulna articulate to form the radioulnar synovial joints? Describe the joints according to the joint classifications. Why they can be refer to combined joints? With which joint is the proximal radioulnar joint is also combined? What movements occur at these joints? Describe the interosseous membrane. What type of the joints does it belong to?
  7. Which parts of the forearm bones and which carpal bones articulate to form the wrist joint? Describe the joint according to the joint classifications. What is the structural feature of the wrist joint? Which joint is it combined with? What movements occur at the wrist joint? What ligaments reinforce the wrist joint? Describe their attachment.
  8. Name in sequence all the synovial joints connecting the hand bones, beginning from the joints between the carpal bones.
  9. Classify the midcarpal joint. What bones articulate to form the joint? Which joints is it combined with? What movements occur at this joint? Why is it amphyarthrosis? What ligaments reinforce the joint? Describe their attachment.
  10. Which bones articulate to form the intercarpal joints? How many such joints exist? What movements occur at these joints? Why are they amphyarthroses? What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  11. Describe the carpometacarpal joints according to the joint classification. How many such joints exist? Which carpal bones and bases of which metacarpal bones articulate to form each carpometacarpal joint? What are the functional differences between the carpometacarpal joints? Describe the movements at the carpometacarpal joints (pay attention to the movements at the I carpometacarpal joint). What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  12. What parts of the metacarpal bones articulate to form the intermetacarpal joints? How many such joints exist? What movements occur at these joints? Why are they amphyarthroses? What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  13. Describe the metacarpophalangeal joints according to the joint classification. How many such joints exist? Which parts of the metacarpal bones and of the phalanges articulate to form metacarpophalangeal joints? Describe the movements at these joints. What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  14. Describe the interphalangeal joints according to the joint classification. How many such joints has each finger? Which parts of the phalanges articulate to form interphalangeal joints? What the movements occur at these joints. What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.

 Print the diagram to draw in the class Synovial joints of hand

Practice:

 

     Bones of Forearm

  1. ulnar, ulna;
  2. radius, radius;
  3. interosseous space, spatium interosseum antebrachii;
  4. posterior surfaces of radius and ulna, facies posterior;
  5. anterior surfaces of radius and ulna, facies anterior;
  6. lateral surface of radius, facies lateralis;
  7. medial surface of ulna, facies medialis;
  8. interosseous borders of radius and ulna, margo interosseus;
  9. anterior borders of radius and ulna , margo anterior;
  10. posterior borders of radius and ulna, margo posterior;

 

Ulna

  1. trochlear notch, incisura trochlearis;
  2. coronoid process, processus coronoideus;
  3. olecranon, olecranon;
  4. radial notch, incisura radialis;
  5. supinator crest, crista m. supinatoris;
  6. ulnar tuberosity, tuberositas ulna;
  7. head of ulna, caput ulnae;
  8. articular circumference, circumferentia articularis;
  9. ulnar styloid process, processus styloideus ulnae;

 

 Radius

  1. head of radius, caput radii;
  2. articular facet, fovea articularis;
  3. articular circumference, circumferentia articularis;
  4. neck of the radius, collum radii;
  5. radial tuberosity, tuberositas radi;
  6. ulnar notch, incisura ulnaris;
  7. radial styloid process, processus styloideus radii;
  8. carpal articular surface, facies articularis carpalis;

 

     Bones of Hand

  1. palmar surface of hand, facies palmaris;
  2. dorsal surface of hand, facies dorsalis;
  3. lateral (or radial) side of hand, facies lateralis,
  4. medial (or ulnar) side of hand, facies medialis;
  5. carpal bones, ossa carpi;
  6. metacarpal bones (from I to V), ossa metacarpi;
  7. phalanges, phalanges digitorum manus;
  8. scaphoid, os scaphoideum;
  9. lunate, os lunatum;
  10. triquetrum, os triquetrum;
  11. pisiform, os pisiforme;
  12. trapezium, os trapezium;
  13. trapezoid, os trapezoideum;
  14. capitate, os capitatum;
  15. hamate, os hamatum;
  16. carpal groove, sulcus carpi;
  17. base of metacarpal bone, basis ossis metacarpi;
  18. body of metacarpal bone, corpus ossis metacarpi;
  19. head of metacarpal bone, caput ossis metacarpi;
  20. thumb, pollex (digitus primus, digitus secundus);
  21. index finger, index;
  22. middle finger, digitus medius (tertius);
  23. ring finger, digitus anonimus (quartus);
  24. little finger, digitus minimus (quintus);
  25. proximal phalanx, phalanx proximalis;
  26. middle phalanx, phalanx media;
  27. distal phalanx, phalanx distali

 

JOINTS

  1. cubital (elbow) joint, articulatio cubiti;
  2. humeroulnar joint, articulatio humeroulnaris;
  3. humeroradial joint, articulatio humeroradialis;
  4. proximal radioulnar joint, articulatio radioulnaris proximalis;
  5. annular ligament of radius, ligamentum anulare radii;
  6. ulnar collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale ulnare;
  7. radial collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale radiale;
  8. interosseous membrane of forearm, membrana interossea antebrachii;
  9. distal radioulnar joint, articulatio radioulnaris distalis;
  10. palmar radioulnar ligaments, ligamentum radioulnare palmare;
  11. dorsal radioulnar ligaments, ligamentum radioulnare dorsale;
  12. radiocarpal (wrist) joint, articulatio radiocarpalis;
  13. radial collateral carpal ligament, ligamentum collaterale carpi radiale;
  14. ulnar collateral carpal ligament, ligamentum collaterale carpi ulnare;
  15. palmar radiocarpal ligament, ligamentum radiocarpale palmare;
  16. dorsal radiocarpal ligament, ligamentum radiocarpale dorsale;
  17. palmar ulnocarpal ligament, ligamentum ulnocarpale palmare;
  18. dorsal ulnocarpal ligament, ligamentum ulnocarpale dorsale;
  19. midcarpal joint, articulatio mediocarpalis;
  20. dorsal intercarpal ligaments, ligamenta intercarpalia dorsalia;
  21. radiate carpal ligament, ligamentum carpi radiatum;
  22. palmar intercarpal ligaments, ligamenta intercarpalia palmaria;
  23. flexor retinaculum, retinaculum flexorum;
  24. pisohamate ligament, ligamentum pisohamatum;
  25. pisometacarpal ligament, ligamentum pisometacarpale;
  26. carpometacarpal joints, articulationes carpometacarpales;
  27. dorsal carpometacarpal ligaments, ligamenta carpometacarpalia dorsalia;
  28. palmar carpometacarpal ligaments, ligamenta carpometacarpalia palmaria;
  29. intermetacarpal joints, articulationes intermetacarpales;
  30. dorsal metacarpal ligaments, ligamenta metacarpalia dorsalia;
  31. palmar metacarpal ligaments, ligamenta metacarpalia palmaria;
  32. metacarpophalangeal joints, articulationes metacarpophalangeae;
  33. collateral ligaments, ligamenta collateralia;
  34. palmar ligaments, ligamenta palmaria;
  35. deep transverse metacarpal ligament, ligamentum metacarpale transversum profundum;

 

 

X-ray:

 

Bones of Forearm

  1. ulnar, ulna;
  2. radius, radius;
  3. interosseous space, spatium interosseum antebrachii;

 

Ulna

  1. trochlear notch, incisura trochlearis;
  2. coronoid process, processus coronoideus;
  3. olecranon, olecranon;
  4. tuberosity of ulna, tuberositas ulna;
  5. head of ulna, caput ulnae;
  6. ulnar styloid process, processus styloideus ulnae;

 

 Radius

  1. head of radius, caput radii;
  2. neck of the radius, collum radii;
  3. radial tuberosity, tuberositas radi;
  4. radial styloid process, processus styloideus radii;

 

     Bones of Hand

  1. carpal bones, ossa carpi;
  2. metacarpal bones (from I to V), ossa metacarpi;
  3. phalanges, phalanges digitorum manus;
  4. scaphoid, os scaphoideum;
  5. lunate, os lunatum;
  6. triquetrum, os triquetrum;
  7. pisiform, os pisiforme;
  8. trapezium, os trapezium;
  9. trapezoid, os trapezoideum;
  10. capitate, os capitatum;
  11. hamate, os hamatum;
  12. base of metacarpal bone, basis ossis metacarpi;
  13. body of metacarpal bone, corpus ossis metacarpi;
  14. head of metacarpal bone, caput ossis metacarpi;
  15. thumb, pollex (digitus primus, digitus secundus);
  16. index finger, index;
  17. middle finger, digitus medius (tertius);
  18. ring finger, digitus anonimus (quartus);
  19. little finger, digitus minimus (quintus);
  20. proximal phalanx, phalanx proximalis;
  21. middle phalanx, phalanx media;
  22. distal phalanx, phalanx distali

 

JOINTS

  1. cubital (elbow) joint, articulatio cubiti;
  2. humeroulnar joint, articulatio humeroulnaris;
  3. humeroradial joint, articulatio humeroradialis;
  4. proximal radioulnar joint, articulatio radioulnaris proximalis;
  5. radiocarpal (wrist) joint, articulatio radiocarpalis;
  6. midcarpal joint, articulatio mediocarpalis;
  7. carpometacarpal joints, articulationes carpometacarpales;
  8. intermetacarpal joints, articulationes intermetacarpales;
  9. metacarpophalangeal joints, articulationes metacarpophalangeae;
  10. interphalangeal joints, articulationes interphalangeae

 

8. The structure of the pelvic bone. The structure of the femur. The joints between the pelvic bones; the hip joint.

              Importance:

       To know the structure of bones and joints of the pelvic girdle and femur is important to study the subsequent anatomy topics, and in the clinical practice. The pelvic bones serve as the places where many muscles are attached; these muscles act on hip and knee joints. To know the femur structure is important to understand the structure and dynamics of the hip and knee joints.

        Anatomical knowledge of the pelvis as a whole is of great importance in obstetrics. The pelvic cavity contains the organs of the urogenital system. The pelvis is a birth canal. To know the normal size of the female pelvis  is important to predict delivery.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The classification of the bones.
  2. The parts of the skeleton.
  3. The structure of the sacrum.
  4. The general data of the bone junctions.

   Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Describe the pelvic bone. What type according to the bone classification does the pelvic bone belong to? How can you differentiate the right pelvic bone from the left one? How will you find the inner and outer surfaces of the pelvic bone? What parts are distinguished in the pelvic bone? Where do the bodies of all the three bones, comprising the pelvic bone, join together?
  2. Describe the ilium. What parts does it include? Where is inner and outer surface of the ilium? What is the function of the auricular surface? What ligament is attached to the anterior superior iliac spine? What is the function of the iliac crest and gluteal lines? What muscle occupies the iliac fossa?
  3. Describe the ischium. What parts does it include? What ligaments are attached to the ischial spine and to the ischial tuberosity?
  4. Describe the pubis. What parts does it include? What ligament is attached to the pubic tubercle? What is the function of the obturator groove? What is the function of the symphysial surface?
  5. Describe the acetabulum. What parts does it consist of? What is the function of the lunate surface and acetabular fossa? What ligament bridges over the acetabular notch?
  6. Which structures bound the obturator foramen? How is it closed? How is the obturator canal formed? What is its function?
  7. What bones form the pelvis? What is the greater  and lesser pelvis? Where is the border between them? What structures form the terminal line? What organs lie in the greater pelvis and in the lesser pelvis in males and in females? Describe the structure of the pelvic inlet and outlet. What name has the muscular membrane closing the pelvic outlet? Describe the main pelvic conjugate: the points, between which they are measured, their average length. Why the sizes of the pelvis are important for women?
  8. What types of the joints connect the bones of the pelvis? What bones are connected by the synovial joints? Describe the sacroiliac joints according to the joint classifications. What ligaments reinforce them? Describe the attachment of the ligaments. Why these joins are amphyarthroses?
  9. Describe the pubic symphysis. How is it formed? What is its function? What ligaments reinforce it?
  10. Name all the ligaments of the pelvis (besides the ligaments of the sacroiliac joint and of the symphysis) and their attachment. What is the function of the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments? How is the inguinal ligament formed; what is its function? How are the greater and lesser sciatic foramina formed? What is their function?
  11. Describe the femur. What type according to the bone classification does the femur belong to? How can you differentiate the right femur from the left one? How can you find the proximal and distal femoral epiphyses? How can you find the anterior and posterior, medial and lateral sides of the femur? What is the function of the femoral head? What is the function of the trochanters? What ligaments are attached to the intertrochanteric line and crest? What ligament is attached to the fovea of the femoral head? How many borders and surfaces has the femoral body? What is the function of the linea aspera? What ligaments are attached to the femoral epicondyles? What is the function of the femoral condyles? Why the surfaces of the femoral distal epiphysis are called popliteal and patellar?
  12. Describe the hip joint according to the joint classifications. What part of the femur and of the pelvic bone articulate to form this joint? What accessory structures does the joint have? What movements occur at this joint? What ligaments reinforce the joint? Which of them are intrinsic and which are extrinsic? Describe their attachment.

See the video Pelvimetry

Print the diagram to draw in the class Pelvimetry

Practice:

     Pelvic Bone

  1. ilium, os ilium;
  2. ischium, os ischii;
  3. pubis, os pubis;
  4. acetabulum, acetabulum;
  5. body of ilium, corpus ossis ilii;
  6. wing of ilium, ala ossis ilii;
  7. arcuate line, linea arcuata;
  8. iliac crest, crista iliaca;
  9. external lip, labium externum;
  10. internal lip, labium internum;
  11. intermediate line, linea intermedia;
  12. anterior superior iliac spine, spina iliaca anterior superior;
  13. posterior superior iliac spine, spina iliaca posterior superior;
  14. anterior inferior iliac spine, spina iliaca anterior inferior;
  15. posterior inferior iliac spine, spina iliaca posterior inferior;
  16. anterior gluteal line, linea glutea anterior;
  17. posterior gluteal line, linea glutea posterior;
  18. inferior gluteal line, linea glutea inferior;
  19. iliac fossa, fossa iliaca.;
  20. auricular surface, facies auricularis;
  21. iliac tuberosity, tuberositas iliaca;
  22. body of ischium, corpus ossis ischii;
  23. ramus of ischium, ramus ossis ischii;
  24. obturator foramen, foramen obturatum;
  25. ischial tuberosity, tuber ischiadicum;
  26. ischial spine, spina ischiadica;
  27. greater sciatic notch, incisura ischiadica major;
  28. lesser sciatic notch, incisura ischiadica minor;
  29. body of pubis, corpus ossis pubis;
  30. superior pubic ramus, ramus superior ossis pubis;
  31. inferior pubic ramus, ramus inferior ossis pubis;
  32. symphysial surface, facies symphysialis;
  33. iliopubic eminence, eminentia iliopubica;
  34. pubic crest, pecten ossis pubis;
  35. pubic tubercle, tuberculum pubicum;
  36. obturator groove, sulcus obturatorius;

Femur

  1. body of femur, corpus femoris;
  2. head of femur, caput femoris;
  3. neck of femur, collum femoris;
  4. fovea for ligament of head, fovea capitis ossis femoris;
  5. greater trochanter, trochanter major;
  6. lesser trochanter, trochanter minor;
  7. trochanteric fossa, fossa trochanterica;
  8. intertrochanteric line, linea intertrochanterica;
  9. intertrochanteric crest, crista intertrochanterica
  10. linea aspera, linea aspera;
  11. lateral and medial lips of linea aspera, labium laterale et labium mediale,
  12. pectineal line, linea pectinea;
  13. gluteal tuberosity, tuberositas glutea;
  14. popliteal surface, facies poplitea;
  15. lateral condyle, condylus lateralis;
  16. medial condyle, condylus medialis;
  17. intercondylar fossa, fossa intercondylaris;
  18. patellar surface, facies patellaris;
  19. lateral epicondyle, epicondylus lateralis;
  20. medial epicondyle, epicondylus medialis

JOINTS

  1. sacroiliac joint, articulatio sacroiliaca;
  2. anterior sacroiliac ligament, ligamentum sacroiliacum anterius;
  3. posterior sacroiliac ligament, ligamentum sacroiliacum posterius;
  4. iliolumbar ligament, ligamentum iliolumbale;
  5. pubic symphysis, symphysis pubica;
  6. superior pubic ligament, ligamentum pubicum superius;
  7. inferior pubic ligament, ligamentum pubicum inferius;
  8. sacrotuberous ligament, ligamentum sacrotuberale;
  9. sacrospinous ligament, ligamentum sacrospinale;
  10. obturator membrane, membrana obturatoria;
  11. obturator canal, canalis obturatorius;
  12. greater pelvis, pelvis major;
  13. lesser pelvis, pelvis minor;
  14. terminal line, linea terminalis;
  15. pelvic inlet, or superior pelvic aperture, apertura pelvis superior;
  16. pelvic outlet, or inferior pelvic aperture, apertura pelvis inferior;
  17. greater sciatic foramen, foramen ischiadicum majus;
  18. lesser sciatic foramen, foramen ischiadicum minus;
  19. anatomical conjugate, conjugata anatomica;
  20. true, or gynecological conjugate, conjugata vera seu gynecologica;
  21. diagonal conjugate, conjugata diagonalis;
  22. transverse diameter, diameter transversa;
  23. oblique diameter, diameter oblique;
  24. straight size of the pelvic outlet (the conjugate of the outlet);
  25. transverse size of the pelvic outlet;
  26. interspinous distance, distantia interspinosa;
  27. intercristal distance, distantia intercristalis;
  28. intertrochanteric distance, distantia intertrochanterica;
  29. external conjugate, conjugata externa.
  30. coxal (hip) joint, articulatio сохае (coxofemoralis);
  31. acetabular labrum, labrum acetabuli;
  32. transverse acetabular ligament, ligamentum transversum acetabuli;
  33. ligament of femoral head, ligamentum capitis femoris;
  34. iliofemoral ligament, ligamentum iliofemorale (Bertini);
  35. pubofemoral ligament, ligamentum pubofemorale;
  36. ischiofemoral ligament, ligamentum ischiofemorale;
  37. zona orbicularis, zona orbicularis

X-rays:

     Pelvic Bone

  1. ilium, os ilium;
  2. ischium, os ischii;
  3. pubis, os pubis;
  4. acetabulum, acetabulum;
  5. wing of ilium, ala ossis ilii;
  6. arcuate line, linea arcuata;
  7. iliac crest, crista iliaca;
  8. anterior superior iliac spine, spina iliaca anterior superior;
  9. anterior inferior iliac spine, spina iliaca anterior inferior;
  10. iliac fossa, fossa iliaca;
  11. ramus of ischium, ramus ossis ischii;
  12. obturator foramen, foramen obturatum;
  13. ischial tuberosity, tuber ischiadicum;
  14. ischial spine, spina ischiadica;
  15. greater sciatic notch, incisura ischiadica major;
  16. lesser sciatic notch, incisura ischiadica minor;
  17. superior pubic ramus, ramus superior ossis pubis;
  18. inferior pubic ramus, ramus inferior ossis pubis;
  19. iliopubic eminence, eminentia iliopubica;
  20. pubic tubercle, tuberculum pubicum;
  21. obturator groove, sulcus obturatorius;

Femur

  1. body of femur, corpus femoris;
  2. head of femur, caput femoris;
  3. neck of femur, collum femoris;
  4. greater trochanter, trochanter major;
  5. lesser trochanter, trochanter minor;
  6. intertrochanteric line, linea intertrochanterica;
  7. lateral condyle, condylus lateralis;
  8. medial condyle, condylus medialis;
  9. lateral epicondyle, epicondylus lateralis;
  10. medial epicondyle, epicondylus medialis

Pelvis

  1. sacroiliac joit, articulatio sacroiliaca;
  2. greater pelvis, pelvis major;
  3. lesser pelvis, pelvis minor;
  4. terminal line, linea terminalis;
  5. pelvic inlet, or superior pelvic aperture, apertura pelvis superior;
  6. pelvic outlet, or inferior pelvic aperture, apertura pelvis inferior;
  7. coxal (hip) joint, articulatio сохае (coxofemoralis);

 

9. The structure of the leg bones (tibia and fibula), patella and foot. The joints between the leg bones: knee, tibiofibular, ankle. The joints of the foot.

       Importance:

 To know this topic is important to understand the attachment and action of the muscles of the leg and foot, and to make correct diagnosis in case of injuries and diseases of the leg and foot bones.

 

Before the study of the topic you should know:

  1. The classification of the bones.
  2. The parts of the skeleton.
  3. The structure of the femur.
  4. The general data of the bone joints.

 

   Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Which bones form the leg? How are they arranged in the leg?
  2. Describe the patella.
  3. Describe the tibia. What type according to the bone classification does the tibia belong to? How can you differentiate the right tibia from the left one? How will you find the proximal and distal epiphyses of the tibia? How will you find the anterior and posterior, medial and lateral sides of the tibia? What is the function of the tibial condyles? What ligaments are attached to the intercondylar areas? What is the function of the intercondylar eminence? What ligament is attached to the tibial tuberosity? How many borders and surfaces has the tibial body? What is the special function of the interosseous border? What is the function of the inferior tibial articular surface and articular surface of medial malleolus? What is the function of the fibular notch? What ligaments are attached to medial malleolus?
  4. Describe the fibula. What type according to the bone classification does the fibula belong to? How can you differentiate the right fibula from the left one? How will you find the proximal and distal epiphyses of the fibula? How will you find the anterior and posterior, medial and lateral sides of the fibula? Where is the fibular head? What is its function? How many borders and surfaces has the fibular body? What is the special function of the interosseous border? What is the function of the articular surface of lateral malleolus? Which ligaments are attached to the lateral malleolus?
  5. What parts does the foot consist of? Show the plantar and dorsal surfaces of the foot, the lateral and medial sides. Show the first, second and other toes. Name the tarsal bones (of the proximal and distal rows) in sequence. What is the type of the tarsal bones according to the bone classification? What parts does each metatarsal bone consist of? What type according to the bone classification do the tarsal and metatarsal bones belong to? How many phalanges has each toe? What type according to the bone classification do the phalanges belong to? What parts does each phalanx consist of?
  6. Describe the talus. What parts does it include? What is the function of its trochlea? What are the functions of its articular surfaces? Describe the calcaneus. What are the functions of its articular surfaces? How is the tarsal sinus formed? What ligament filles it? Describe the navicular, cuneiform and cuboid bones and the functions of their articular surfaces.
  7. Which bones articulate to form the knee joint? Describe the joint according to the joint classifications. What accessory structures are present in the knee joint? Describe the intrinsic ligaments and their attachment. Describe the synovial bursae, their location and function. What movements occur at the knee joint? What extrinsic ligaments reinforce the knee joint? Describe their attachment.
  8. What types of the joints connect the tibia and fibula? What parts of the tibia and fibula articulate to form the tibiofibular joint? Describe the joint according to the joint classifications. What movements occur at this joint? What ligaments reinforce it? What parts of the tibia and fibula are connected by the tibiofibular syndesmosis? What ligaments reinforce it? Describe the interosseous membrane. What type of the joints does it belong to?
  9. Which parts of the leg bones and tarsal bone articulate to form the ankle joint? Describe the joint according to the joint classifications. Which joint is it combined with? What movements occur at the ankle joint? What ligaments reinforce the ankle joint? Describe their attachment.
  10. Name in sequence all the synovial joints connecting the foot bones, beginning from the joints between the tarsal bones.
  11. Describe the subtalar joint. What bones articulate to form this joint? Which joints is it combined with? What movements occur at this joint?
  12. Describe the talocalcaneonavicular joint. What bones articulate to form this joint? Which joints is it combined with? What movements occur at this joint? What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  13. Describe the calcaneocuboid joint. What bones articulate to form this joint? Which joints is it combined with? What movements occur at this joint? What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  14. What is the transverse tarsal joint (of Chopart)? What bones articulate to form this joint? What is its clinical importance?
  15. Describe the cuneonavicular joint. What bones articulate to form this joint? How many cuneonavicular joints exist? Which joints is it combined with? What movements occur at this joint? What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  16. What parts of the metatarsal bones articulate to form the intermetatarsal joints? How many such joints exist? What movements occur at these joints? Why are they amphyarthroses? What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  17. Describe the tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joints according to the joint classification. How many such joints exist? What is their clinical importance? Which tarsal bones and bases of which metatarsal bones articulate to form each tarsometatarsal joint? What movements occur at these joints? What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  18. Describe the metatarsophalangeal joints according to the joint classification. How many such joints exist? Which parts of the metatarsal bones and of the phalanges articulate to form these joints? Describe the movements at these joints. What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  19. Describe the interphalangeal joints according to the joint classification. How many such joints has each toe? Which parts of the phalanges articulate to form interphalangeal joints? What the movements occur at these joints. What ligaments reinforce the joints? Describe their attachment.
  20. Describe the normal shape of the foot. What arches are distinguished in the foot? What ligaments help to hold the foot arches? How does the flat foot disturbs to the functions of the foot? How does the flat foot effect on the joints of the lower limbs and the vertebral column?

Print the diagram to draw in the class Synovial joint of foot

Practice:

Patella

  1. apex of patella, apex patellae;
  2. base of patella, basis  patellae;
  3. anterior surface, facies anterior;
  4. articular surface, facies articularis

 

Tibia

  1. body of tibia, corpus tibiae;
  2. lateral condyle, condylus lateralis;
  3. medial condyle, condylus medialis;
  4. superior articular surface, facies articularis superior;
  5. intercondylar eminence, eminentia intercondylaris,;
  6. anterior intercondylar area, area intercondylaris anterior;
  7. posterior intercondylar area, area intercondylaris posterior;
  8. fibular articular facet, facies articularis fibularis;
  9. anterior border, margo anterior;
  10. medial border, margo medialis;
  11. interosseous border, margo interosseus;
  12. tibial tuberosity, tuberositas tibiae;
  13. soleal line, linea m. solei;
  14. inferior articular surface, facies articularis inferior;
  15. fibular notch, incisura fibularis;
  16. medial malleolus, malleolus medialis;
  17. articular facet of medial malleolus, facies articularis malleoli medialis;
  18. malleolar groove, sulcus malleolaris

Fibula

  1. body of fibula, corpus fibulae;
  2. head of fubula, caput fibulae;
  3. apex of head, apex capitis fibulae;
  4. articular facet of head, facies articularis capitis fibulae;
  5. neck of fibula, collum fibulae;
  6. anterior border, margo anterior;
  7. posterior border, margo posterior;
  8. interosseous border, margo interosseus;
  9. lateral malleolus, malleolus lateralis;
  10. articular facet of lateral malleolus, facies articularis malleoli lateralis;
  11. malleolar fossa, fossa malleoli lateralis

Bones of Foot

  1. tarsal bones, ossa tarsi;
  2. metatarsal bones, ossa metatarsi;
  3. phalanges, phalanges digitorum pedis;
  4. talus, talus;
  5. head of talus, caput tali;
  6. neck of talus, collum tali;
  7. trochlea of talus, trochlea tali;
  8. posterior process of talus, processus posterior tali;
  9. lateral tubercle, tuberculum laterale;
  10. medial tubercle, tuberculum mediale;
  11. groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longus, sulcus tendinis m. flexoris hallucis longi;
  12. calcaneus, calcaneus;
  13. calcaneal tuberosity, tuber calcanei;
  14. sustentaculum tali (talar shelf), sustentaculum tali;
  15. tarsal sinus, sinus tarsi;
  16. navicular bone, os naviculare;
  17. middle cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme mediale;
  18. intermediate cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme intermedium;
  19. lateral cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme laterale;
  20. cuboid bone, os cuboideum;
  21. body of metatarsal bone, corpus ossis metatarsi;
  22. head of metatarsal bone, caput ossis metatarsi;
  23. base of metatarsal bone, basis ossis metatarsi;
  24. tuberosity of the first metatarsal bone, tuberositas ossis metatarsi I;
  25. tuberosity of the V metatarsal bone, tuberositas ossis metatarsi V;
  26. proximal phalanx, phalanx proximalis;
  27. middle phalanx, phalanx media;
  28. distal phalanx, phalanx distali

 

JOINTS

 

  1. genual (knee) joint, articulatio genus;
  2. medial meniscus, meniscus medialis;
  3. lateral meniscus, meniscus lateralis;
  4. transverse genual ligament, ligamentum transversum genus;
  5. anterior cruciate ligament, ligamentum cruciatum anterius;
  6. posterior cruciate ligament, ligamentum cruciatum posterius;
  7. anterior meniscofemoral ligament, ligamentum meniscofemorale anterius;
  8. posterior meniscofemoral ligament, ligamentum meniscofemorale posterius;
  9. patellar ligament, ligamentum patellae;
  10. fibular collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale fibulare;
  11. tibial collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale tibiale;
  12. arcuate popliteal ligament, ligamentum popliteum arcuatum;
  13. oblique popliteal ligament, ligamentum popliteum obliquum;
  14. medial patellar retinacula, retinaculum patellae mediale;
  15. lateral patellar retinacula, retinaculum patellae laterale;
  16. suprapatellar bursa, bursa suprapatellaris;
  17. deep infrapatellar bursa, bursa infrapatellaris profunda;
  18. subcutaneous prepatellar bursa, bursa prepatellaris subcutanea;
  19. tibiofibular joint, articulatio tibiofibularis;
  20. anterior ligament of fibular head, ligamentum capitis fibulae anterius;
  21. posterior ligament of fibular head, ligamentum capitis fibulae posterius;
  22. tibiofibular syndesmosis, syndesmosis tibiofibularis ;
  23. anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments, ligamenta tibiofibularia anterius et posterius.
  24. interosseous membrane of leg, membrana interossea cruri;
  25. talocrural (ankle) joint, articulatio talocruralis;
  26. medial collateral (deltoid) ligament, ligamentum collaterale mediale (deltoideum);
  27. lateral collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale laterale;
  28. anterior talofibular ligament, ligamentum talofibulare anterius;
  29. posterior talofibular ligament, ligamentum talofibulare posterius;
  30. calcaneofibular ligament, ligamentum calcaneofibulare;
  31. subtalar joint, articulatio subtalaris;
  32. talocalcaneonavicular joint, articulatio talocalcaneonavicularis;
  33. plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, ligamentum calcaneonaviculare plantare;
  34. talonavicular ligament, ligamentum talonaviculare;
  35. lateral talocalcaneal ligament, ligamentum talocalcaneum laterale;
  36. medial talocalcaneal ligament, ligamentum talocalcaneum mediale;
  37. calcaneocuboid joint, articulatio calcaneocuboidea;
  38. long plantar ligament, ligamentum plantare longum;
  39. plantar calcaneocuboid ligament, ligamentum calcaneocuboideum plantare;
  40. transverse tarsal joint, articulatio tarsi transversa (the joint of Chopart);
  41. bifurcated ligament, ligamentum bifurcatum;
  42. cuneonavicular joint, articulatio cuneonavicularis;
  43. dorsal cuneonavicular ligaments, ligamenta cuneonavicularia dorsalia;
  44. plantar cuneonavicular ligaments, ligamenta cuneonavicularia plantaria;
  45. tarsometatarsal joints, articulationes tarsometatarsales;
  46. dorsal tarsometatarsal ligaments, ligamenta tarsometatarsalia dorsalia;
  47. plantar tarsometatarsal ligaments, ligamenta tarsometatarsalia plantaria;
  48. intermetatarsal joints, articulationes intermetatarseae;
  49. dorsal metatarsal ligaments, ligamenta metatarsalia dorsalia;
  50. plantar metatarsal ligaments, ligamenta metatarsalia plantaria;
  51. metatarsophalangeal joints, articulationes metatarsophalangeae;
  52. collateral ligaments, ligamenta collateralia;
  53. deep transverse metatarsal ligament, ligamentum metatarsale transversum profundum;
  54. interphalangeal joints, articulationes interphalangeae;

 

X-rays:

Patella

  1. apex of patella, apex patellae;
  2. base of patella, basis  patellae;

Tibia

  1. body of tibia, corpus tibiae;
  2. lateral condyle, condylus lateralis;
  3. medial condyle, condylus medialis;
  4. intercondylar eminence, eminentia intercondylaris;
  5. tibial tuberosity, tuberositas tibiae;
  6. medial malleolus, malleolus medialis;

 

Fibula

  1. body of fibula, corpus fibulae;
  2. head of fubula, caput fibulae;
  3. apex of head, apex capitis fibulae;
  4. neck of fibula, collum fibulae;
  5. lateral malleolus, malleolus lateralis;

 

Bones of Foot

  1. tarsal bones, ossa tarsi;
  2. metatarsal bones, ossa metatarsi;
  3. phalanges, phalanges digitorum pedis;
  4. talus, talus;
  5. head of talus, caput tali;
  6. neck of talus, collum tali;
  7. trochlea of talus, trochlea tali;
  8. calcaneus, calcaneus;
  9. calcaneal tuberosity, tuber calcanei;
  10. navicular bone, os naviculare;
  11. middle cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme mediale;
  12. intermediate cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme intermedium;
  13. lateral cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme laterale;
  14. cuboid bone, os cuboideum;
  15. body of metatarsal bone, corpus ossis metatarsi;
  16. head of metatarsal bone, caput ossis metatarsi;
  17. base of metatarsal bone, basis ossis metatarsi;
  18. tuberosity of the first metatarsal bone, tuberositas ossis metatarsi I;
  19. tuberosity of the V metatarsal bone, tuberositas ossis metatarsi V;
  20. proximal phalanx, phalanx proximalis;
  21. middle phalanx, phalanx media;
  22. distal phalanx, phalanx distali

 

 

JOINTS

 

  1. genual (knee) joint, articulatio genus;
  2. tibiofibular joint, articulatio tibiofibularis;
  3. talocrural joint, articulatio talocruralis;
  4. subtalar joint, articulatio subtalaris;
  5. talocalcaneonavicular joint, articulatio talocalcaneonavicularis;
  6. calcaneocuboid joint, articulatio calcaneocuboidea;
  7. transverse tarsal joint, articulatio tarsi transversa (the joint of Chopart);
  8. cuneonavicular joint, articulatio cuneonavicularis;
  9. tarsometatarsal joints, articulationes tarsometatarsales;
  10. intermetatarsal joints, articulationes intermetatarseae;
  11. metatarsophalangeal joints, articulationes metatarsophalangeae;
  12. interphalangeal joints, articulationes interphalangeae;

Questions for Major Osteology

  1. Give the classification of the bones according to the different principles.
  2. Describe the distinctive features of the cervical vertebrae.
  3. Describe the differences between the thoracic vertebrae in the presence of the costal facets. Describe the differences between the ribs in the presence of the costal tubercles and in the features of the facets on the costal head.
  4. Describe the vertebral column in whole: the parts, curves, the function and the time of the appearance of the curves.
  5. Give the general classification of the bone articulations; classify the solid (non-synovial, uninterrupted) joint.
  6. Classify the syndesmoses and synchondroses. Give the examples of each type of the solid joint.
  7. Give the three characteristic signs of a synovial joint.
  8. Classify the synovial joints according to the number of the articular surfaces and combination with the other joints.
  9. List the structures, which can be situated inside a synovial joint (accessory structures); give the examples.
  10. Classify the synovial joints according to the number of the axes of movements and shape of articular surfaces; give the examples.
  11. Give the characteristic of the joints between vertebrae: which types of the articulations connect the vertebral bodies, the vertebral arches and the vertebral processes: articular, transverse, spinous.
  12. Describe the connections between the last lumbar vertebra and sacrum; sacrum and coccyx.
  13. Give the full description of the intervertebral (synovial) joints.
  14. Give the full description of the atlantoaxial joints (median and laterals). Name the ligaments reinforcing the joints and describe their attachment.
  15. Give the full description of the atlantooccipital joints. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joints and describe their attachment.
  16. Give the full description of the joints between the vertebrae and ribs. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joints and describe their attachment.
  17. Give the full description of the joints between the ribs and sternum. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joints and describe their attachment. Describe the connections between the ribs.
  18. Classify the ribs; name the parts of the sternum. Describe the structure of the thorax: which bones form the anterior thoracic wall, laterals, posterior. What bones limit the superior and inferior thoracic apertures? What types of the thoracic cages do you know? How are they distinguished? What is the practical importance of these types?
  19. Give the full description of the sternoclavicular joint. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joint and describe their attachment.
  20. Give the full description of the acromioclavicular joint. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joint and describe their attachment.
  21. Give the full description of the shoulder joint. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joint and describe their attachment.
  22. Name the ligaments of the scapula and describe their attachment.
  23. Give the full description of the elbow joint. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joint and describe their attachment.
  24. Give the full description of the radioulnar joints.
  25. Give the full description of the wrist joint. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joint and describe their attachment.
  26. Name all the synovial joints of the hand. Give the full description of these joints and describe the principles of the arrangement of the hand ligaments.
  27. Describe the pelvis: what bones form the pelvis, what articulations connect the bones of the pelvis. Describe the pelvic inlet and outlet. What is the greater and lesser pelvis? What is the terminal line, how is it formed?
  28. Give the full description of the sacroiliac joint. Name the ligaments of the pelvis and describe their attachment. Explain, what are the obturator canal, greater and lesser sciatic foramina.
  29. Give the full description of the hip joint. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joint and describe their attachment.
  30. Give the full description of the knee joint. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joint and describe their attachment.
  31. Give the full description of the ankle joint. Name the ligaments reinforcing the joint and describe their attachment.
  32. Name all the synovial joints of the foot. Give the full description of these joints and describe the principles of the arrangement of the foot ligaments.
  33. Describe the arches of the foot. What structures help to support the normal shape of the foot?

Practice Osteology

Common Vertebral Features

  1. vertebral body, corpus vertebrae;
  2. vertebral arch, arcus vertebrae;
  3. pedicle of vertebral arch, pediculus arcus vertebrae;
  4. vertebral foramen, foramen vertebrale;
  5. vertebral canal, canalis vertebralis;
  6. spinous process, processus spinosus;
  7. transverse processes, processus transversus;
  8. superior articular process, processus articularis superior;
  9. inferior articular process, processus articularis inferior;
  10. superior vertebral notch, incisura vertebralis superior;
  11. inferior vertebral notch, incisura vertebralis inferior;
  12. intervertebral foramen, foramen intervertebrale;

 

      Cervical Vertebrae 

  1. transverse foramen, foramen transversarium;
  2. groove for spinal nerve, sulcus nervi spinalis;
  3. anterior tubercle of transverse process, tuberculum anterius;
  4. posterior tubercle of transverse process, tuberculum posterius.;
  5. carotid tubercle, tuberculum caroticum;
  6. anterior arch of atlas, arcus anterior atlantis;
  7. posterior arch of atlas, arcus posterior atlantis;
  8. anterior tubercle of atlas, tuberculum anterius;
  9. posterior tubercle of atlas, tuberculum posterius
  10. superior articular surface of atlas, facies articularis superioris;
  11. inferior articular surfaces of atas, facies articulares inferiors;
  12. groove for vertebral artery, sulcus arteriae vertebralis;
  13. dens, dens axis;
  14. anterior articular facet of dens, facies articularis anterior;
  15. posterior articular facet of dens, facies articularis posterior;
  16. superior articular facet of axis, facies articularis superior;

 

 

Thoracic Vertebrae

  1. superior costal facet (demi-facet), fovea costalis superior;
  2. inferior costal facet demi-facet, fovea costalis inferior;
  3. transverse costal facet, fovea costalis processus transverse;

 

Lumbar Vertebra

  1. mammillary process, processus mamillaris;
  2. accessory process, processus accessorius;

 

Sacrum

  1. base of the sacrum, basis ossis sacri;
  2. apex of the sacrum, apex ossis sacri;
  3. pelvic surface, facies pelviсa;
  4. dorsal surface, facies dorsalis;
  5. superior articular processes, processus articulares superiores;
  6. sacral promontory, promontorium;
  7. transverse line, linea transversa;
  8. anterior sacral foramen, foramen sacrale anterius;
  9. posterior sacral foramen, foramen sacrale posterius;
  10. median sacral crest, crista sacralis mediana;
  11. intermediate sacral crest, crista sacralis intermedia;
  12. lateral sacral crest, crista sacralis lateralis;
  13. auricular surface, facies auricularis;
  14. sacral tuberosity, tuberositas ossis sacri;
  15. sacral canal, canalis caralis;
  16. sacral hiatus, hiatus sacralis;
  17. sacral horn, cornu sacrale;

 

      Coccyx

  1. coccygeal horn, cornu coccygeum;

 

Ribs

  1. true ribs, costae verae;
  2. false ribs, costae spuriae;
  3. floating ribs, costae fluctuantes;
  4. head of rib, caput costae;
  5. crest of head of rib, crista capitis costae;
  6. neck of rib, collum costae;
  7. body (shaft) of rib, corpus costae;
  8. articular part of tubercle of rib, facies articularis tuberculi costae;
  9. non-articular part of tubercle of rib, eminentia tuberculi costae;
  10. angle of rib, angulus costae;
  11. groove of rib, sulcus costae;
  12. scalene tubercle of I rib, tuberculum musculi scaleni anterioris;
  13. groove for subclavian artery of I rib, sulcus arteriae subclaviae;
  14. groove for subclavian vein of I rib, sulcus venae subclaviae;
  15. anterior end of rib, extremitas anterior;
  16. posterior end of rib, extremitas posterior;
  17. costal cartilage, cartilago costalis;

 

      Sternum

  1. body of sternum, corpus sterni;
  2. manubrium of sternum, manubrium sterni;
  3. xiphoid process, processus xiphoideus;
  4. sternal angle, angulus sterni;
  5. jugular notch, incisura jugularis;
  6. clavicular notch, incisura clavicularis;
  7. costal notch, incisura costalis.


Scapula

  1. inferior angle, angulus inferior;
  2. superior angle, angulus superior;
  3. lateral angle, angulus lateralis;
  4. medial border, margo medialis;
  5. lateral border, margo lateralis;
  6. superior border, margo superior;
  7. anterior (costal) surface, facies anterior seu costalis;
  8. subscapular fossa, fossa subscapularis;
  9. posterior surface, facies posterior;
  10. scapular spine, spina scapulae;
  11. supraspinous fossa, fossa supraspinata;
  12.  infraspinous fossa, fossa infraspinata;
  13. glenoid cavity, cavitas glenoidalis;
  14. supraglenoid tubercle, tuberculum supraglenoidale;
  15. infraglenoid tubercle, tuberculum infraglenoidale;
  16. neck of scapula, collum scapulae;
  17. coracoid process, processus coracoideus;
  18. scapular notch, incisura scapulae;
  19. acromion, acromion;

 

Clavicle

  1. body, corpus claviculae;
  2. sternal end, extremitas sternalis;
  3. acromial end, extrimitas acromialis;
  4. sternal facet, facies articularis sternalis;
  5. acromial facet, facies articularis acromialis;
  6. impression of costoclavicular ligament, impressio ligamenti costoclavicularis;
  7.  conoid tubercle, tuberculum conoideum;
  8.  trapezoid line, linea trapezoidea;
  9.  tuberosity of coracoclavicular ligament, tuberositas ligamenti coracoclavicularis


 

 


 Humerus

  1. body (shaft), corpus humeri
  2. proximal epiphysis, epiphysis proximalis;
  3. distal epiphysis, epiphysis distalis;
  4.  head of humerus, caput humeri;
  5.  anatomical neck, collum anatomicum;
  6.  lesser tubercle, tuberculum minus;
  7.  greater tubercle, tuberculum majus;
  8. crest of greater tubercle, crista tuberculi majoris;
  9. crest of lesser tubercles, crista tuberculi minoris;
  10. bicipital groove, sulcus intertubercularis;
  11. neck, collum chirurgicum;
  12. posterior surface of body, facies posterior;
  13. anteromedial surface, facies anteromedialis;
  14. anterolateral surface, facies anterolateralis;
  15. deltoid tuberosity, tuberositas deltoidea;
  16. spiral groove (the groove for radial nerve), sulcus nervi radialis (sulcus spiralis);
  17. condyle of humerus, condylus humeri;
  18. trochlea of humerus, trochlea humeri;
  19. capitulum of humerus, capitulum humeri;
  20. coronoid fossa, fossa coronoidea;
  21.  radial fossa, fossa radialis;
  22.  olecranon fossa, fossa olecrani;
  23.  medial epicondyle, epicondylus medialis;
  24.  lateral epicondyle, epicondylus lateralis;
  25.  groove for ulnar nerve, sulcus nervi ulnaris;
  26.  medial and lateral supracondylar crests, crista supracondylaris medialis et crista supracondylaris lateralis.

 

     Bones of Forearm

  1. ulnar, ulna;
  2. radius, radius;
  3. interosseous space, spatium interosseum antebrachii;
  4.  posterior surfaces of radius and ulna, facies posterior;
  5. anterior surfaces of radius and ulna, facies anterior;
  6. lateral surface of radius, facies lateralis;
  7.  medial surface of ulna, facies medialis;
  8.  interosseous borders of radius and ulna, margo interosseus;
  9.  anterior borders of radius and ulna , margo anterior;
  10. posterior borders of radius and ulna, margo posterior;

 

Ulna

  1. trochlear notch, incisura trochlearis;
  2. coronoid process, processus coronoideus;
  3.  olecranon, olecranon;
  4. radial notch, incisura radialis;
  5.  supinator crest, crista m. supinatoris;
  6. tuberosity of ulna, tuberositas ulna;
  7. head of ulna, caput ulnae;
  8.  articular circumference, circumferentia articularis;
  9. ulnar styloid process, processus styloideus ulnae;

 

 Radius

  1. head of radius, caput radii;
  2. articular facet, fovea articularis;
  3. articular circumference, circumferentia articularis;
  4.  neck of the radius, collum radii;
  5. radial tuberosity, tuberositas radi;
  6.  ulnar notch, incisura ulnaris;
  7.  radial styloid process, processus styloideus radii;
  8.  carpal articular surface, facies articularis carpalis;

 

     Bones of Hand

  1. palmar surface of hand, facies palmaris;
  2. dorsal surface of hand, facies dorsalis;
  3. lateral (or radial) side of hand, facies lateralis
  4. medial (or ulnar) side of hand, facies medialis;
  5. carpal bones, ossa carpi;
  6. metacarpal bones (from I to V), ossa metacarpi;
  7. phalanges, phalanges digitorum manus;
  8. scaphoid, os scaphoideum;
  9. lunate, os lunatum;
  10. triquetrum, os triquetrum;
  11. pisiform, os pisiforme;
  12. trapezium, os trapezium;
  13. trapezoid, os trapezoideum;
  14. capitate, os capitatum;
  15. hamate, os hamatum;
  16. carpal groove, sulcus carpi;
  17. base of metacarpal bone, basis ossis metacarpi;
  18. body of metacarpal bone, corpus ossis metacarpi;
  19. head of metacarpal bone, caput ossis metacarpi;
  20. thumb, pollex (digitus primus, digitus secundus);
  21. index finger, index;
  22. middle finger, digitus medius (tertius);
  23. ring finger, digitus anonimus (quartus);
  24. little finger, digitus minimus (quintus);
  25. proximal phalanx, phalanx proximalis;
  26. middle phalanx, phalanx media;
  27. distal phalanx, phalanx distalis.

 

Pelvic Bone

  1. ilium, os ilium;
  2. ischium, os ischii;
  3. pubis, os pubis;
  4. acetabulum, acetabulum;
  5. body of ilium, corpus ossis ilii;
  6. wing of ilium, ala ossis ilii;
  7. arcuate line, linea arcuata;
  8. iliac crest, crista iliaca;
  9. external lip, labium externum;
  10. internal lip, labium internum;
  11. intermediate line, linea intermedia;
  12.  anterior superior iliac spine, spina iliaca anterior superior;
  13.  posterior superior iliac spine, spina iliaca posterior superior;
  14. anterior inferior iliac spine, spina iliaca anterior inferior;
  15.  posterior inferior iliac spine, spina iliaca posterior inferior;
  16. iliac fossa, fossa iliaca.;
  17.  auricular surface, facies auricularis;
  18. iliac tuberosity, tuberositas iliaca;
  19. body of ischium, corpus ossis ischii;
  20. ramus of ischium, ramus ossis ischii;
  21.  obturator foramen, foramen obturatum;
  22.  ischial tuberosity, tuber ischiadicum;
  23.  ischial spine, spina ischiadica;
  24. greater sciatic notch, incisura ischiadica major;
  25.  lesser sciatic notch, incisura ischiadica minor;
  26. body of pubis, corpus ossis pubis;
  27. superior pubic ramus, ramus superior ossis pubis;
  28. inferior pubic ramus, ramus inferior ossis pubis;
  29.  symphysial surface, facies symphysialis;
  30.  iliopubic eminence, eminentia iliopubica;
  31.  pubic crest, pecten ossis pubis;
  32.  pubic tubercle, tuberculum pubicum;
  33.  obturator groove, sulcus obturatorius;

 

Femur

  1. body of femur, corpus femoris;
  2. head of femur, caput femoris;
  3. neck of femur, collum femoris;
  4. fovea for ligament of head, fovea capitis ossis femoris;
  5. greater trochanter, trochanter major;
  6. lesser trochanter, trochanter minor;
  7.  trochanteric fossa, fossa trochanterica;
  8.  intertrochanteric line, linea intertrochanterica;
  9.  intertrochanteric crest, crista intertrochanterica
  10.  linea aspera, linea aspera;
  11.  lateral and medial lips, labium laterale et labium mediale,
  12. pectineal line, linea pectinea;
  13.  gluteal tuberisuty, tuberositas glutea;
  14.  popliteal surface, facies poplitea;
  15. lateral condyle, condylus lateralis;
  16. medial condyle, condylus medialis;
  17.  intercondylar fossa, fossa intercondylaris;
  18.  patellar surface, facies patellaris;
  19.  lateral epicondyle, epicondylus lateralis;
  20.  medial epicondyle, epicondylus medialis

 

Patella

  1.  apex of patella, apex patellae;
  2.  anterior surface, facies anterior;
  3.  articular surface, facies articularis

 

Tibia

  1.  body of tibia, corpus tibiae;
  2.  lateral condyle, condylus lateralis;
  3.  medial condyle, condylus medialis;
  4.  superior articular surface, facies articularis superior;
  5.  intercondylar eminence, eminentia intercondylaris,;
  6.  anterior intercondylar area, area intercondylaris anterior;
  7. posterior intercondylar area, area intercondylaris posterior;
  8.  fibular articular facet, facies articularis fibularis;
  9.  anterior border, margo anterior;
  10.  medial border, margo medialis;
  11.  interosseous border, margo interosseus;
  12.  tibial tuberosity, tuberositas tibiae;
  13.  soleal line, linea m. solei;
  14.  inferior articular surface, facies articularis inferior;
  15.  fibular notch, incisura fibularis;
  16.  medial malleolus, malleolus medialis;
  17.  articular facet of medial malleolus, facies articularis malleoli medialis;
  18.  malleolar groove, sulcus malleolaris

 

Fibula

  1.  body of fibula, corpus fibulae;
  2.  head of fubula, caput fibulae;
  3.  apex of head, apex capitis fibulae;
  4.  articular facet of head, facies articularis capitis fibulae;
  5.  neck of fibula, collum fibulae;
  6.  anterior border, margo anterior;
  7.  posterior border, margo posterior;
  8.  interosseous border, margo interosseus;
  9.  lateral malleolus, malleolus lateralis;
  10.  articular facet of lateral malleolus, facies articularis malleoli lateralis;
  11.  malleolar fossa, fossa malleoli lateralis

Bones of Foot

  1. tarsal bones, ossa tarsi;
  2. metatarsal bones, ossa metatarsi;
  3. phalanges, phalanges digitorum pedis;
  4. talus, talus;
  5. head of talus, caput tali;
  6. neck of talus, collum tali;
  7. trochlea of talus, trochlea tali;
  8. posterior process of talus, processus posterior tali;
  9.  lateral tubercle, tuberculum laterale;
  10.  medial tubercle, tuberculum mediale;
  11.  groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longus, sulcus tendinis m. flexoris hallucis longi;
  12.  calcaneus, calcaneus;
  13.  calcaneal tuberosity, tuber calcanei;
  14. sustentaculum tali (talar shelf), sustentaculum tali;
  15. tarsal sinus, sinus tarsi;
  16. navicular bone, os naviculare;
  17.  middle cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme mediale;
  18. intermediate cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme intermedium;
  19. lateral cuneiform bone, os cuneiforme laterale;
  20. cuboid bone, os cuboideum;
  21.  body of metatarsal bone, corpus ossis metatarsi;
  22.  head of metatarsal bone, caput ossis metatarsi;
  23.  base of metatarsal bone, basis ossis metatarsi;
  24.  tuberosity of the first metatarsal bone, tuberositas ossis metatarsi I;
  25.  tuberosity of the V metatarsal bone, tuberositas ossis metatarsi V;
  26. proximal phalanx, phalanx proximalis;
  27. middle phalanx, phalanx media;
  28. distal phalanx, phalanx distalis.

Practice Arthrosyndesmology

JOINTS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN

  1. intervertebral disc, discus intervertebralis;
  2. anterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum longitudinale anterius;
  3. posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum longitudinale posterius;
  4. ligamentum flavum, ligamentum flavum;
  5. interspinous ligament, ligamentum interspinale;
  6. supraspinous ligament, ligamentum supraspinale;
  7. nuchal ligament, ligamentum nuchae;
  8. intertransverse ligament, ligamentum intertransversarium;
  9. intervertebral joints, articulationes intervertebrales;
  10. atlantoocipital jonts, articulationes atlantooccipitales;
  11. median atlantoaxial joint, articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana;
  12. lateral atlantoaxial joints, articulationes atlantoaxiales laterales dextra et sinistra;
  13. anterior atlantooccipital membrane, membrana atlantooccipitalis anterior;
  14. posterior atlantooccipital membrane, membrana atlantooccipitalis posterior;
  15. transverse atlantal ligament, ligamentum transversum atlantis;
  16. cruciate ligament of atlas, ligamentum cruciforme atlantis;
  17. alar ligaments, ligamenta alaria;
  18. apical ligament of dens, ligamentum apicis dentis;
  19. tectorial membrane, membrana tectoria;
  20. cervical and lumbar lordoses;
  21. thoracic and sacral kyphoses

 

JOINTS OF RIBS. THORAX

  1. joint of costal head, articulatio capitis costae;
  2. radiate ligament of costal head, ligamentum capitis costae radiatum;
  3. costotransverse joint, articulatio costotransversaria;
  4. costotransverse ligament, ligamentum costotransversarium;
  5. sternocostal jonts, articulationes sternocostales;
  6. radiate sternocostal ligaments, ligamenta sternocostalia radiate;
  7. sternal membrane, membrana sterni;
  8. interchondral joints, articulationes interchondrales;
  9. internal intercostal membrane, membrana intercostalis interna;
  10. external intercostal membrane, membrana intercostalis externa;
  11. pulmonary grooves, sulci pulmonales;
  12. costal arch, arcus costalis;
  13. infrasternal angle, angulus infrasternalis;
  14. superior thoracic aperture, apertura thoracis superior;
  15. inferior thoracic aperture, apertura thoracis inferior;
  16. intercostal spaces, spatia intercostalia

 

JOINTS OF SHOULDER GIRDLE

  1. coracoacromial ligament, ligamentum coracoacromiale;
  2. superior transverse scapular ligament, ligamentum transversum scapulae superius;
  3. acromioclavicular joint, articulatio acromioclavicularis;
  4. acromioclavicular ligament, ligamentum acromioclaviculare;
  5. coracoclavicular ligament, ligamentum coracoclaviculare;
  6. sternoclavicular joint, articulatio sternoclavicularis;
  7. anterior sternoclavicular ligaments, ligamentum sternoclaviculare anterius;
  8. posterior sternoclavicular ligaments, ligamentum sternoclaviculare posterius;
  9. costoclavicular ligament, ligamentum costoclaviculare

 

JOINTS OF FREE UPPER LIMB

  1. humeral (shoulder) joint, articulatio humeri;
  2. coracohumeral ligament, ligamentum coracohumerale;
  3. glenohumeral ligaments, ligamenta glenohumeralia;
  4. cubital (elbow) joint, articulatio cubiti;
  5. humeroulnar joint, articulatio humeroulnaris;
  6. humeroradial joint, articulatio humeroradialis;
  7. proximal radioulnar joint, articulatio radioulnaris proximalis;
  8. annular ligament of radius, ligamentum anulare radii;
  9. ulnar collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale ulnare;
  10. radial collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale radiale;
  11. interosseous membrane of forearm, membrana interossea antebrachii;
  12. distal radioulnar joint, articulatio radioulnaris distalis;
  13. palmar radioulnar ligaments, ligamentum radioulnare palmare;
  14. dorsal radioulnar ligaments, ligamentum radioulnare dorsale;
  15. radiocarpal (wrist) joint, articulatio radiocarpalis;
  16. radial collateral carpal ligament, ligamentum collaterale carpi radiale;
  17. ulnar collateral carpal ligament, ligamentum collaterale carpi ulnare;
  18. palmar radiocarpal ligament, ligamentum radiocarpale palmare;
  19. dorsal radiocarpal ligament, ligamentum radiocarpale dorsale;
  20. palmar ulnocarpal ligament, ligamentum ulnocarpale palmare;
  21. dorsal ulnocarpal ligament, ligamentum ulnocarpale dorsale;
  22. midcarpal joint, articulatio mediocarpalis;
  23. dorsal intercarpal ligaments, ligamenta intercarpalia dorsalia;
  24. radiate carpal ligament, ligamentum carpi radiatum;
  25. palmar intercarpal ligaments, ligamenta intercarpalia palmaria;
  26. flexor retinaculum, retinaculum flexorum;
  27. pisohamate ligament, ligamentum pisohamatum;
  28. pisometacarpal ligament, ligamentum pisometacarpale;
  29. carpometacarpal joints, articulationes carpometacarpales;
  30. dorsal carpometacarpal ligaments, ligamenta carpometacarpalia dorsalia;
  31. palmar carpometacarpal ligaments, ligamenta carpometacarpalia palmaria;
  32. intermetacarpal joints, articulationes intermetacarpales;
  33. dorsal metacarpal ligaments, ligamenta metacarpalia dorsalia;
  34. palmar metacarpal ligaments, ligamenta metacarpalia palmaria;
  35. metacarpophalangeal joints, articulationes metacarpophalangeae;
  36. collateral ligaments, ligamenta collateralia;
  37. palmar ligaments, ligamenta palmaria;
  38. deep transverse metacarpal ligament, ligamentum metacarpale transversum profundum;


JOINTS OF PELVIC GIRDLE

  1. sacroiliac joint, articulatio sacroiliaca;
  2. anterior sacroiliac ligament, ligamentum sacroiliacum anterius;
  3. posterior sacroiliac ligament, ligamentum sacroiliacum posterius;
  4. iliolumbar ligament, ligamentum iliolumbale;
  5. pubic symphysis, symphysis pubica;
  6. superior pubic ligament, ligamentum pubicum superius;
  7. inferior pubic ligament, ligamentum pubicum inferius;
  8. sacrotuberous ligament, ligamentum sacrotuberale;
  9. sacrospinous ligament, ligamentum sacrospinale;
  10. obturator membrane, membrana obturatoria;
  11. obturator canal, canalis obturatorius;
  12. greater pelvis, pelvis major;
  13. lesser pelvis, pelvis minor;
  14. terminal line, linea terminalis;
  15. pelvic inlet, or superior aperture, apertura pelvis superior;
  16. pelvic outlet, or inferior aperture, apertura pelvis inferior;
  17. greater sciatic foramen, foramen ischiadicum majus;
  18. lesser sciatic foramen, foramen ischiadicum minus;
  19. anatomical conjugate, conjugata anatomica;
  20. true, or gynecological conjugate, conjugata vera seu gynecologica;
  21. diagonal conjugate, conjugata diagonalis;
  22. transverse diameter, diameter transversa;
  23. oblique diameter, diameter oblique;
  24. straight size of the pelvic outlet (the conjugate of the outlet);
  25. transverse size of the pelvic outlet;
  26. interspinous distance, distantia interspinosa;
  27. intercristal distance, distantia intercristalis;
  28. intertrochanteric distance, distantia intertrochanterica;
  29. external conjugate, conjugata externa.

 

 

JOINTS OF FREE LOWER LIMB

  1. coxal (hip) joint, articulatio сохае (coxofemoralis);
  2. acetabular labrum, labrum acetabuli;
  3. transverse acetabular ligament, ligamentum transversum acetabuli;
  4. ligament of femoral head, ligamentum capitis femoris;
  5. iliofemoral ligament, ligamentum iliofemorale (Bertini);
  6. pubofemoral ligament, ligamentum pubofemorale;
  7. ischiofemoral ligament, ligamentum ischiofemorale;
  8. zona orbicularis, zona orbicularis;
  9. genual (knee) joint, articulatio genus;
  10. medial meniscus, meniscus medialis;
  11. lateral meniscus, meniscus lateralis;
  12. transverse genual ligament, ligamentum transversum genus;
  13. anterior cruciate ligament, ligamentum cruciatum anterius;
  14. posterior cruciate ligament, ligamentum cruciatum posterius;
  15. anterior meniscofemoral ligament, ligamentum meniscofemorale anterius;
  16. posterior meniscofemoral ligament, ligamentum meniscofemorale posterius;
  17. patellar ligament, ligamentum patellae;
  18. fibular collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale fibulare;
  19. tibial collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale tibiale;
  20. arcuate popliteal ligament, ligamentum popliteum arcuatum;
  21. oblique popliteal ligament, ligamentum popliteum obliquum;
  22. medial patellar retinacula, retinaculum patellae mediale;
  23. lateral patellar retinacula, retinaculum patellae laterale;
  24. suprapatellar bursa, bursa suprapatellaris;
  25. deep infrapatellar bursa, bursa infrapatellaris profunda;
  26. subcutaneous prepatellar bursa, bursa prepatellaris subcutanea;
  27. tibiofibular joint, articulatio tibiofibularis;
  28. anterior ligament of fibular head, ligamentum capitis fibulae anterius;
  29. posterior ligament of fibular head, ligamentum capitis fibulae posterius;
  30. tibiofibular syndesmosis, syndesmosis tibiofibularis ;
  31. anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments, ligamenta tibiofibularia anterius et posterius.
  32. interosseous membrane of leg, membrana interossea cruri;
  33. talocrural joint, articulatio talocruralis;
  34. medial collateral (deltoid) ligament, ligamentum collaterale mediale (deltoideum);
  35. lateral collateral ligament, ligamentum collaterale laterale;
  36. anterior talofibular ligament, ligamentum talofibulare anterius;
  37. posterior talofibular ligament, ligamentum talofibulare posterius;
  38. calcaneofibular ligament, ligamentum calcaneofibulare;
  39. subtalar joint, articulatio subtalaris;
  40. talocalcaneonavicular joint, articulatio talocalcaneonavicularis;
  41. plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, ligamentum calcaneonaviculare plantare;
  42. talonavicular ligament, ligamentum talonaviculare;
  43. lateral talocalcaneal ligament, ligamentum talocalcaneum laterale;
  44. medial talocalcaneal ligament, ligamentum talocalcaneum mediale;
  45. calcaneocuboid joint, articulatio calcaneocuboidea;
  46. long plantar ligament, ligamentum plantare longum;
  47. plantar calcaneocuboid ligament, ligamentum calcaneocuboideum plantare;
  48. transverse tarsal joint, articulatio tarsi transversa (the joint of Chopart);
  49. bifurcated ligament, ligamentum bifurcatum;
  50. cuneonavicular joint, articulatio cuneonavicularis;
  51. dorsal cuneonavicular ligaments, ligamenta cuneonavicularia dorsalia;
  52. plantar cuneonavicular ligaments, ligamenta cuneonavicularia plantaria;
  53. tarsometatarsal joints, articulationes tarsometatarsales;
  54. dorsal tarsometatarsal ligaments, ligamenta tarsometatarsalia dorsalia;
  55. plantar tarsometatarsal ligaments, ligamenta tarsometatarsalia plantaria;
  56. intermetatarsal joints, articulationes intermetatarseae;
  57. dorsal metatarsal ligaments, ligamenta metatarsalia dorsalia;
  58. plantar metatarsal ligaments, ligamenta metatarsalia plantaria;
  59. metatarsophalangeal joints, articulationes metatarsophalangeae;
  60. collateral ligaments, ligamenta collateralia;
  61. deep transverse metatarsal ligament, ligamentum metatarsale transversum profundum;
  62. interphalangeal joints, articulationes interphalangeae;

 

10.The structure of the frontal, occipital and parietal bones.

        Importance:

The treatment of the craniocereberal injuries, inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, the plastic surgery on the head require a good knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial cavity which is mainly formed by the frontal, parietal and occipital bones.

 

Before you start to study this topic you need to know:

  1. The general organization of the skull.
  2. The  structure of the skull bones.

 

      Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Classify the skull bones. How they develop? Describe their internal structure. What bones comprise the neurocranium and which bones comprise the viscerocranium? What bones form the calvaria and what bones form the skull base? Through which points does the boundary between the calvaria and skull base pass? Why does the hyoid bone also belong to the skull bones? Which skull bones are pneumatized? Why they are pneumatized? 
  2. Describe the frontal bone. Find the frontal bone in the whole skull. Describe the position of the frontal bone in the skull: which bones of the neuro- and viscerocranum  does it connect with? How can you differentiate the anterior and posterior sides of the frontal bone, its upper and lower edges, its internal and extrernal surfaces? What parts does the frontal bone have? What surfaces are distinguished in the squamous and orbital parts? Why their inner surfaces are called cerebral and have a peculiar relief? Why do the orbital and nasal parts have such names? What is the function of the zygomatic process? What is the function of the foramen caecum and frontal crest? Describe the location of the ethmoidal notch. Why does it have such a name? What are the functions of the trochlear fovea, fossae for lacrimal gland and sac? What parts of the nasal cavity are formed with participation of the frontal bone`s nasal part and its nasal spine? Describe the position, walls and capacity of the frontal sinus. What canal leads from the sinus? Where does it open? Through which bones does the groove for superior sagittal sinus pass? What does it contain?
  3. Describe the occipital bone. Find the occipital bone in the whole skull. Describe the position of the occipital bone in the skull: which bones of the neurocranum does it connect with? How can you differentiate the anterior and posterior sides of the frontal bone, its upper and lower edges, its internal and extrernal surfaces? What parts does the occipital bone have? What surfaces are distinguished in the squamous part? Why its inner surface is called cerebral and has a peculiar relief? What grooves for sinuses pass on the inner surface of the squama occipitalis? What are the functions of the internal and external occipital crests and protuberances? Describe the functions of: the foramen magnum, occipital condyles, jugular notch, intrajugular process, clivus, pharyngeal tubercle.
  4. Describe the parietal bone. Find the parietal bone in the whole skull. Describe the position of the parietal bone in the skull: which bones of the neurocranum does it connect with? How can you differentiate the anterior and posterior margins of the parietal bone, its upper and lower margins, its internal and extrernal surfaces? Why its inner surface is called cerebral and has a peculiar relief? What borders and angles has the parietal bone? Why do they have such names? How can you distinguish the angles and the borders of the parietal bone?

Practice:

Frontal Bone

  1. squamos part, squama frontalis;
  2. orbital part, partes orbitalis;
  3. nasal part, pars nasalis;
  4. frontal tuber, tuber frontale;
  5. supraorbital  margin, margo supraorbitalis;
  6. zygomatic process, processus zygomaticus;
  7. supraorbital notch, incisura supraorbitalis (supraorbital foramen, foramen supraorbitale
  8. temporal line, linea temporalis;
  9. temporal surface, facies temporalis;
  10. superciliary arch, arcus superciliaris;
  11. glabella, glabella;
  12. groove for superior sagittal sinus, sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris;
  13. frontal crest, crista frontalis;
  14. cerebral surface of orbital part, facies cerebralis;
  15. orbital surface of orbital part, facies orbitalis;
  16. fossa for lacrimal gland, fossa glandulae lacrimalis;
  17. trochlear fovea, fovea trochlearis;
  18. trochlear spine, spina trochlearis;
  19. ethmoidal notch, incisura ethmoidalis;
  20. nasal spine, spina nasalis;
  21. frontal sinus, sinus frontalis;

 

      Occipital Bone

  1. basilar part, pars basilaris;
  2. lateral parts, partes laterals;
  3. squamous part, squama occipitalis;
  4. foramen magnum, foramen magnum;
  5. pharyngeal tubercle, tuberculum pharyngeum;
  6. occipital condyle, condylus occipitalis;
  7. condylar fossa, fossa condylaris;
  8. condylar canal, canalis condylaris;
  9. hypoglossal canal, canalis n. hypoglossi;
  10. jugular notch, incisura jugularis;
  11. groove for sigmoid sinus, sulcus sinus sigmoidei;
  12. cruciform eminence, eminentia cruciformis;
  13. internal occipital protuberance, protuberantia occipitalis interna;
  14. internal occipital crest, crista occipitalis interna;
  15. groove for superior sagittal sinus, sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris;
  16. groove for transverse sinus, sulcus sinus transversi;
  17. external occipital protuberance, protuberantia occipitalis externa;
  18. external occipital crest, crista occipitalis externa;
  19. superior nuchal line, linea nuchalis superior;
  20. inferior nuchal line, linea nuchalis inferior;
  21. highest nuchal line, linea nuchalis suprema;

 

Parietal Bone

  1. sagittal border, margo sagittalis;
  2. frontal border, margo frontalis;
  3. occipital border, margo occipitalis;
  4. squamosal border, margo squamosus;
  5. frontal angle, angulus frontalis;
  6. occipital angle, angulus occipitalis;
  7. shenoidal angle, angulus sphenoidalis;
  8. mastoid angle, angulus mastoideus;
  9. parietal tuber, tuber parietale;
  10. inferior temporal line, linea temporalis inferior;
  11. superior temporal line, linea temporalis superior;
  12. groove for superior sagittal sinus, sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris;

 

X-ray Skills:

 

Frontal Bone

  1. squamos part, squama frontalis;
  2. frontal tuber, tuber frontale;
  3. supraorbital  margin, margo supraorbitalis;
  4. zygomatic process, processus zygomaticus;
  5. supraorbital notch, incisura supraorbitalis (supraorbital foramen, foramen supraorbitale);
  6. superciliary arch, arcus superciliaris;
  7. glabella, glabella;
  8. frontal sinus, sinus frontalis;

 

      Occipital Bone

  1. squamous part, squama occipitalis;
  2. external occipital protuberance, protuberantia occipitalis externa;

 

Parietal Bone

  1. sagittal border, margo sagittalis;
  2. frontal border, margo frontalis;
  3. occipital border, margo occipitalis;
  4. frontal angle, angulus frontalis;
  5. occipital angle, angulus occipitalis;
  6. shenoidal angle, angulus sphenoidalis;
  7. mastoid angle, angulus mastoideus;
  8. parietal tuber, tuber parietale;

 

11. The structure of the ethmoid and sphenoid bones.

   

       Importance:

       You need to know the structure of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones to study the next anatomy topics and to study roentgenology, surgery, ophthalmic and ENT diseases, traumatology. The sphenoid and ethmoid bones are involved in the formation of the skull base; the injuries of these bones are very dangerous to life. The correct diagnosis of these injuries is impossible without good knowledge of the structure of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones.

 

Before you start to study this topic you need to know:

  1. The general organization of the skull.
  2. The structure of the skull bones.
  3. The structure of the frontal, occipital and parietal bones.

      Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Describe the sphenoid bone. Describe the position of the sphenoid bone in the skull: which bones of the neuro- and viscerocranum does it connect with? How can you differentiate the anterior and posterior sides of the sphenoid bone, its upper and lower sides, its internal and extrernal surfaces? What parts does the sphenoid bone have? What surfaces are distinguished on the greater wings? Where are they directed? Which bones connect to the greater and lesser wings? Where is the sphenoidal sinus located? Describe its walls and capacity. Where do their apertures open? Describe the superior surface of the sphenoidal body. Describe the functions of: the hypophysial fossa, carotid sulcus, chiasmatic sulcus, foramen ovale and rotundum, superior orbital fissure. Where do the foramina ovale and rotundum lead to? Where does the superior orbital fissure lead to? Describe the location and structure of the pterygoid process. What is its function?
  2. Describe the ethmoid bone. Describe the position of the ethmoid bone in the skull: which bones of the neurocranum and viscerocranium does it connect with? How can you differentiate the anterior and posterior sides of the ethmoid bone, its upper and lower parts? What parts has the ethmoid bone? What is the function of the crista galli? Describe the location of the cribriform plate. Which bones is the cribriform plate connected with? Why is it pierced by the openings; where do they lead into? Where is the perpendicular plate located? How does the ethmoid bone participate in the formation of the nasal cavity? Which bones does the perpendicular plate connect with? How does the ethmoid bone relate to the orbits? Where are the orbital plates of the ethmoid located? Which bones does the orbital plate connect with? Describe the location and function of the ethmoidal labyrinth? What groups of the ethmoidal cells are distinguished? Where does each of these groups open? Describe the location and function of the semilunar hiatus and ethmoidal infundibulum. What is the concha? Which conchae has the ethmoid bone? What is the function of the uncinate process? What is the bulla ethmoidalis?

 

Practice:

 

Ethmoid Bone

  1. ethmoidal labyrinths, labyrinthi ethmoidales;
  2. cribriform plate, lamina cribrosa;
  3. perpendicular plate, lamina perpendicularis;
  4. ethmoidal cells, cellulae ethmoidales;
  5. orbital plate, lamina orbitalis;
  6. superior nasal concha, concha nasalis superior;
  7. middle nasal concha, concha nasalis media;
  8. crista galli, crista galli;
  9. cribriform foramina, foramina cribrosa;

 

      Sphenoid Bone

  1. body of sphenoid bone, corpus ossis sphenoidalis;
  2. sella turcica, sella turcica;
  3. hypophisial fossa, fossa hypophysialis;
  4. dorsum sellae, dorsum sellae;
  5. tuberculum sellae, tuberculum sellae;
  6. posterior clinoid process, processus clinoideus posterior;
  7. anterior clinoid process, processus clinoideus anterior;
  8. prechiasmatic sulcus, sulcus prechiasmaticus;
  9. carotid sulcus, sulcus caroticus;
  10. sphenoidal crest, crista sphenoidalis;
  11. sphenoidal sinus, sinus sphenoidalis;
  12. lesser wing, ala minor;
  13. optic canal, canalis opticus;
  14. greater wing, ala major;
  15. foramen rotundum, foramen rotundum;
  16. foramen ovale, foramen ovale;
  17. foramen spinosum, foramen spinosum;
  18. superior orbital fissure, fissura orbitalis superior;
  19. infratemporal crest, crista infratemporalis;
  20. medial and lateral plates of pterygoid process, lamina medialis et lamina lateralis;
  21. pterygoid canal, canalis pterygoideus;
  22. pterygoid fossa, fossa pterygoidea;
  23. scaphoid fossa, fossa scaphoidea;
  24. pterygoid hamulus, hamulus pterygoideus;
  25. cerebral surface of greater wing, facies cerebralis;
  26. orbital surface of greater wing, facies orbitalis;
  27. temporal surface of greater wing, facies temporalis;
  28. infratemporal surface of greater wing, facies infratemporalis;
  29. maxillary surface of greater wing, facies maxillaries;

 

X-ray Skills:

 

Ethmoid Bone

  1. ethmoidal labyrinths, labyrinthi ethmoidales;
  2. superior nasal concha, concha nasalis superior;
  3. middle nasal concha, concha nasalis media;

 

      Sphenoid Bone

  1. body of shpenoid, corpus ossis sphenoidalis;
  2. sella turcica, sella turcica;
  3. hypophisial fossa, fossa hypophysialis;
  4. dorsum sellae, dorsum sellae;
  5. sphenoidal sinus, sinus sphenoidalis;

12. The structure of the temporal bone

 Importance:

 The material of this topic is needed to undertand the structure of the whole skull and to study the articulations of the skull bones. Also it will be used in the study of the muscles of the head and neck, inner ear, the VII and VІІІ pairs of cranial nerves, dural sinuses. This knowledge is necessary in practice of ENT specialists, neurosurgeons and others.

 

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The general organization of the skull.
  2. The general structure of the skull bones.
  3. The location of the sphenoid, parietal, occipital bones; their borders and surfaces.

 

      Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Describe the position of the temporal bone in the skull: which bones of the neuro- and viscerocranum does it connect with? Find the borders of the temporal bone in the whole skull. How can you differentiate the anterior and posterior sides of the temporal bone, its upper and lower edges, its internal and extrernal surfaces?
  2. What parts has the temporal bone? What surfaces and borders are distinguished in the squamous part? Which bones does it connect with? What surfaces has the pyramid? Where are they directed? Where is its apex directed? Which bones does the pyramid connect with? Describe the position of the tympanic part. Describe the position of the mastoid process. What does it consist of? Which bones does it connect with?
  3. Describe the external surface of the temporal bone (of the squamous and tympanic parts). What is the function of the external acoustic porus and meatus? What is the function of the zygomatic process?
  4. Describe the inferior surface of the temporal bone. What is the function of the mastoid and styloid processes? What is the function of the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle? Find the external opening of cochlear canaliculus. What is its function?
  5. Describe the external and inner surfaces of the squamous part.
  6. Describe the anterior and posterior surfaces of the pyramid. Describe the function of: the trigeminal impression, tegment tympani, arcuate eminence, internal acoustic porus and meatus (pay attention to the fact that the external and internal acoustic meatuses are not communicated, i.e. do not form a single canal). Find external opening of vestibular aqueduct. What is its function? Describe the function of: the grooves for the sigmoid and petrosal sinuses, grooves for the petrosal nerves.

Home task: Complete the table (you should be able to show the beginning and the end of the canals and name their contents):

 

Canals of Temporal Bone

 

The name of the canal The beginning of the canal The end of the canal The content of the canal
1. Carotid canal

 

2. Caroticotympanic canaliculi

 

3. Facial canal  

 

4. Canaliculus of chorda tympani  

 

 

5. Tympanic canaliculus  

 

6. Musculotubal canal  

 

7. Mastoid canaliculus  

 

Practice:

  1. petrous part, pars petrosa (pyramid, pyramis);
  1. tympanic part, pars tympanica;
  2. mastoid part, pars mastoidea;
  3. squamous part, pars squamosa seu squama;
  1. apex of petrous part, apex partis petrosae;
  2. internal opening of carotid canal, apertura interna canalis carotici;
  3. musculotubal canal, canalis musculotubarius;
  4. petrosquamous fissure, fissura petrosquamosa;
  5. trigeminal impression, impressio trigeminalis;
  6. hiatus for greater petrosal nerve hiatus canalis nervi petrosi majoris;
  7. hiatus for lesser petrosal nerve, hiatus canalis nervi petrosi minoris;
  8. groove for greater petrosal nerve, sulcus nervi petrosi majoris;
  9. groove for lesser petrosal nerve, sulcus nervi petrosi minoris;
  10. arcuate eminence, eminentia arcuata;
  11. tegmen tympani, tegmen tympani;
  12. internal acoustic opening, porus acusticus internus;
  13. internal acoustic meatus, meatus acusticus internus;
  14. subarcuate fossa, fossa subarcuata;
  15. external opening of vestibular aqueduct, apertura externa aqueductus vestibuli;
  16. external opening of cochlear canaliculus, apertura externa canaliculi cochleae;
  17. jugular fossa, fossa jugularis;
  18. external opening of carotid canal, apertura externa canalis carotici;
  19. petrosal fossula, fossula petrosa;
  20. stylomastoid foramen, foramen stylomastoideum;
  21. styloid process, processus styloideus;
  22. mastoid process, processus mastoideus;
  23. mastoid notch, incisura mastoidea;
  24. external acoustic opening, porus acusticus externus;
  25. external acoustic meatus, meatus acusticus externus;
  26. tympanomastoid fissure, fissura tympanomastoidea;
  27. tympanosquamous fissure, fissura tympanosquamosa;
  28. petrotympanic fissure, fissura petrotympanica;
  29. parietal notch, incisura parietalis;
  30. groove for occipital artery, sulcus arteriae occipitalis;
  31. mastoid foramen, foramen mastoideum;
  32. groove for sigmoid sinus, sulcus sinus sigmoidei;
  33. groove for superior petrosal sinus, sulcus sinus petrosi superioris;
  34. groove for inferior petrosal sinus, sulcus sinus petrosi inferioris;
  35. mastoid cells, cellulae mastoideae;
  36. zygomatic process, processus zygomaticus;
  37. mandibular fossa, fossa mandibularis;
  38. articular tubercle, tuberculum articulare

 

X-ray Skills:

 

  1. mastoid process, processus mastoideus;
  2. external acoustic opening, porus acusticus externus;
  3. mastoid cells, cellulae mastoideae;
  4. mandibular fossa, fossa mandibularis;
  5. articular tubercle, tuberculum articulare

 

13. The structure of the bones of viscerocranium (facial bones): maxilla, mandible, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, hyoid bones, vomer, inferior nasal concha.

 Importance:

To perform the plastic surgery on the face, to treat the diseases of the pneumatic sinuses and traumatic injuries of the brain it is important to know the anatomy of facial bones.

 

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The general organization of the skull.
  2. The general structure of the skull bones.
  3. The location of the bones composing calvaria.

 

      Questions (see the textbook Osteology):

  1. Name all the bones of the viscerocranium. Find each of them in the whole skull.
  2. Describe the position of the maxilla. Which bones does it connect with? What parts has the maxilla? What surfaces does its body have? Describe them. Where is the maxillary sinus located? Describe its walls, relations and capacity. How does it open into the nasal cavity? Where is its projection onto the face? What parts of the maxilla participate in the formation of the nasal cavity, orbit, oral cavity? What is the function of the infraorbital canal? Describe all the processes of the maxilla.
  3. Describe the position of the mandible. What bone does it connect with? What parts has the mandible? Describe the mandibular body. To which parts of the mandible the muscles are attached? What is the function of the mandibular canal? Where is its beginning and end? Describe the function of the mandibular head.
  4. Describe the position of the nasal bones. What bones do they connect with? Describe their function?
  5. Describe the position of the lacrimal bone. What bones does it connect with? Describe its function.
  6. Describe the position of the palatine bone. What bones does it connect with? What parts of the palatine bone do you know? What is the function of the perpendicular plate and of the horizontal plate? Which bones do they connect with? How is the sphenopalatine foramen formed? Where does it lead?
  7. Describe the position of the hyoid bone. Describe its parts and function.
  8. Describe the position of the vomer. What bones does it connect with? Describe its function.
  9. Describe the position of the inferior nasal concha. What bones does it connect with? Describe its function.

Practice:

Maxilla

  1. body, corpus maxillae;
  2. frontal process, processus frontalis;
  3. zygomatic process, processus zygomaticus;
  4. alveolar process, processus alveolaris;
  5. palatine process, processus palatinus;
  6. maxillary sinus, sinus maxillaris;
  7. maxillary hiatus, hiatus maxillaris;
  8. anterior surface, facies anterior;
  9. infratemporal surface, facies infratemporalis;
  10. orbital surface, facies orbitalis;
  11. nasal surface, facies nasalis.
  12. infraorbital margin, margo infraorbitalis;
  13. infraorbital foramen, foramen infraorbitale;
  14. canine fossa, fossa canina;
  15. nasal notch, incisura nasalis;
  16. anterior nasal spine, spina nasalis anterior;
  17. maxillary tuberosity, tuber maxillae;
  18. greater palatine groove, sulcus palatinus major;
  19. infraorbital canal, canalis infraorbitalis;
  20. lacrimal groove, sulcus lacrimalis;
  21. conchal crest, crista conchalis;
  22. anterior lacrimal crest, crista lacrimalis anterior;
  23. ethmoidal crest, crista ethmoidalis;
  24. alveolar arch, arcus alveolaris;
  25. dental alveoli, alveoli dentales;
  26. alveolar yokes, juga alveolaria;

Palatine Bone

  1. horizontal plate, lamina horizontalis;
  2. perpendicular plate, lamina perpendicularis;
  3. greater palatine groove, sulcus palatinus major;
  4. conchal crest, crista conchalis;
  5. ethmoidal crest, crista ethmoidalis;
  6. pyramidal process, processus pyramidalis;
  7. orbital process, processus orbitalis;
  8. sphenoidal process, processus sphenoidalis;
  9. sphenopalatine notch, incisura sphenopalatina

Zygomatic Bone

  1. infraorbital margin, margo infraorbitalis;
  2. lateral surface, facies lateralis;
  3. temporal surface, facies temporalis;
  4. orbital surface, facies orbitalis;
  5. zygomaticoorbital foramen, foramen zygomaticoorbitale;
  6. zygomaticofacial foramen, foramen zygomaticofaciale;
  7. zygomaticotemporal foramen, foramen zygomaticotemporale;
  8. temporal process, processus temporalis;
  9. frontal process, processus frontalis;

Lacrimal Bone

  1. posterior lacrimal crest, crista lacrimalis posterior;
  2. lacrimal hamulus, hamulus lacrimalis;
  3. lacrimal groove, sulcus lacrimalis;

  Mandible

  1. body of mandible, corpus mandibulae;
  2. ramus of mandible, ramus mandibulae;
  3. alveolar arch, arcus alveolaris;
  4. dental alveoli, alveoli dentales;
  5. interalveolar septa, septa interalveolaria;
  6. mental protuberance, protuberantia mentalis;
  7. mental tubercle, tuberculum mentale;
  8. mental foramen, foramen mentale;
  9. mental spine, spina mentalis;
  10. sublingual fossa, fovea sublingualis;
  11. digastric fossa, fossa digastrica;
  12. mylohyoid line, linea mylohyoidea;
  13. submandibular fossa, fovea submandibularis;
  14. masseteric tuberosity, tuberositas masseterica;
  15. pterygoid tuberosity, tuberositas pterygoidea;
  16. mandibular foramen, foramen mandibulae;
  17. lingula of mandible, lingula mandibulae;
  18. mandibular notch, incisura mandibulae;
  19. coronoid process, processus coronoideus;
  20. buccinator crest, crista buccinatoria;
  21. condylar process, processus condylaris;
  22. head of mandible, caput mandibulae;
  23. neck of mandible, collum mandibulae;
  24. pterygoid fovea, fovea pterygoidea

 Hyoid Bone

  1. body, corpus;
  2. greater horns, cornua majora;
  3. lesser horns, cornua minora

X-ray:

  1. body of maxilla, corpus maxillae;
  2. ramus of mandible, ramus mandibulae;
  3. maxillary sinus, sinus maxillaris;
  4. zygomatic bone, os zygomaticum;
  5. body of mandible, corpus mandibulae;
  6. mental protuberance, protuberantia mentalis;
  7. coronoid process, processus coronoideus;
  8. condylar process, processus condylaris;
  9. head of mandible, caput mandibulae;
  10. neck of mandible, collum mandibulae;
  11. hyoid bone, os hyoideum;

14. The structure of the whole skull (cranial fossae, nasal cavity, orbits, pterygopalatine fossa, temporal and infratemporal fossae). The joints between the skull bones   

Importance:

The students should know the anatomy of the whole skull to study the nervous and vascular systems because the vessels and nerves supplying the vital organs, pass through different formations on the skull bones. To know these structures is needed in the work of neurologists, ENT specialists, optometrists and other physicians.

 

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The location of all the skull bones.
  2. The structure of the skull bones.

      Questions:

  1. Name all the structures and openings of the external base of skull.
  2. Name all the structures and openings of the internal base of skull.
  3. Which bones and what their structures form the anterior cranial fossa? Name its openings. Where do they lead? What cranial cavities does the anterior cranial fossa connect with?
  4. Which bones and what their structures form the middle cranial fossa? Name its openings. Where do they lead? What cranial cavities does the middle cranial fossa connect with?
  5. Which bones and what their structures form the posterior cranial fossa? Name its openings. Where do they lead?
  6. Which walls has each half of the bony nasal cavity? What opening is the entrance into the nasal cavity? What openings form the exit from the nasal cavity? Where do they lead? What bones and what their structures form: the superior wall of the nasal cavity, lateral wall, inferior wall? What bones and what their structures form the nasal septum? Explain what is the nasal concha and nasal meatus? Describe the limits of each nasal meatus. What cranial cavities open into each meatus? What is the common nasal meatus?
  7. How many walls has the orbit? What bones and what their structures form: the superior wall of the orbit, middle, lateral and inferior walls? Name the openings of the orbit. Where do they lead? What cranial cavities does the orbit connect with?
  8. Describe the location of the pterygopalatine fossa. What does it contain? How are its walls formed? Describe its communications.
  9. Describe the location of the temporal fossa. How is it formed? What does it contain?
  10. Describe the location of the infratemporal fossa. How is it formed? What does it contain?
  11. What types of the joints connect the skull bones? Which bones are connected by syndesmosis, synchondrosys, synostosis, diarthrosis. Describe the age changes of the skull bone articulations.
  12. Describe the temporomandibular joint according to the joint classifications. What parts of the temporal bone and of mandible articulate to form this joint? What accessory structure does it have? What movements occur in the joint? What ligaments reinforce it?

 

Practice:

  1. anterior cranial fossa, fossa cranii anterior;
  2. middle cranial fossa, fossa cranii media;
  3. posterior cranial fossa, fossa cranii posterior;
  4. orbit (superior, middle, inferior, lateral walls);
  5. nasal cavity (superior, lateral inferior walls, nasal septum);
  6. nasal meatus (superior, middle, inferior, common)
  7. external base of skull, basis cranii externa;
  8. internal base of skull, basis cranii interna;
  9. foramen caecum, foramen caecum;
  10. jugular foramen, foramen jugulare;
  11. foramen lacerum, foramen lacerum;
  12. piriform aperture, apertura piriformis;
  13. fossa for lacrimal sac, fossa sacci lacrimalis;
  14. incisive canal, canalis incisivus;
  15. coronal suture, sutura coronalis;
  16. saggital suture, sutura sagittalis,
  17. lambdoid suture, sutura lambdoidea;
  18. temporomandibular joint, articulatio temporomandibularis

X-ray:

  1. orbit (superior, middle, inferior, lateral walls);
  2. nasal meatus (superior, middle, inferior, common)
  3. piriform aperture, apertura piriformis;
  4. coronal suture, sutura coronalis;
  5. lambdoid suture, sutura lambdoidea;
  6. temporomandibular joint, articulatio temporomandibularis

 

Questions for Major Skull

  1. The structure of the external skull base: which bones form the external base? Which openings can be found on the external base? Describe the bony structures visible on the external skull base.
  2. The structure of the internal skull base: Which bones form the internal base? Which fossae are distinguished here? Which openings can be found in the internal base? Describe the bony structures visible on the internal skull base.
  3. Which bones (and which parts of these bones) form the anterior cranial fossa? Describe the communication of the anterior cranial fossa.
  4. Which bones (and which parts of these bones) form the middle cranial fossa? Describe the communications of the middle cranial fossa.
  5. Which bones (and which parts of these bones) form the posterior cranial fossa? Describe the communication of the posterior cranial fossa.
  6. Describe the structure of the orbit: what walls are distinguished in the orbit? Describe the openings and communications of the obit.
  7. Describe the orbital walls: which bones form the superior wall; lateral wall, medial wall and inferior wall?
  8. Describe the bony nasal cavity: what walls are distinguished in the nasal cavity? what cavities drain into the nasal cavity? what openings lead from the nasal cavity?
  9. What bones form the inferior and superior walls of the nasal cavity?
  10. What bones form the medial wall of the nasal cavity (nasal septum)?
  11. What bones form the lateral wall of the nasal cavity?
  12. Describe the borders of the inferior nasal meatus and its communication.
  13. Describe the borders of the middle nasal meatus and its communications.
  14. Describe the borders of the superior nasal meatus and its communications.
  15. Describe the walls and relations of the maxillary sinus. Where does it open?
  16. Describe the walls and relations of the frontal sinus. Where does it open? 
  17. Describe the walls and relations of the sphenoidal sinus. Where does it open? 
  18. Describe the ethmoidal labyrinth: location and relations. Where do the ethmoidal cells open?
  19. Describe the walls of the pterygopalatine fossa.
  20. Describe the communications of the pterygopalatine fossa.
  21. Describe the borders of the temporal fossa and its communications.
  22. Describe the borders of the infratemporal fossa and its communications.
  23. Describe the articulations of the skull bones: what sutures and synchondroses connect the bones of the neurocranium?
  24. Describe the fontanelles: names, location and function. When do they disappear?
  25. Describe the temporomandibular joint according to the joint classifications.

Practical Part for Major Skull

      Frontal Bone

  1. squamos part, squama frontalis;
  2. orbital part, partes orbitalis;
  3. nasal part, pars nasalis;
  4. frontal tuber, tuber frontale;
  5. supraorbital  margin, margo supraorbitalis;
  6. zygomatic process, processus zygomaticus;
  7. supraorbital notch, incisura supraorbitalis (supraorbital foramen, foramen supraorbitale);
  8. frontal notch, incisura frontalis;
  9. temporal line, linea temporalis;
  10. temporal surface, facies temporalis;
  11. superciliary arch, arcus superciliaris;
  12. glabella, glabella;
  13. groove for superior sagittal sinus, sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris;
  14. frontal crest, crista frontalis;
  15. cerebral surface of orbital part, facies cerebralis;
  16.  orbital surface of orbital part, facies orbitalis;
  17. fossa for lacrimal gland, fossa glandulae lacrimalis;
  18. trochlear fovea, fovea trochlearis;
  19. trochlear spine, spina trochlearis;
  20. ethmoidal notch, incisura ethmoidalis;
  21. nasal spine, spina nasalis;
  22. frontal sinus, sinus frontalis;

 

 

      Occipital Bone

  1. basilar part, pars basilaris;
  2. lateral parts, partes laterals;
  3. squamous part, squama occipitalis;
  4. foramen magnum, foramen magnum;
  5. pharyngeal tubercle, tuberculum pharyngeum;
  6. occipital condyle, condylus occipitalis;
  7. condylar fossa, fossa condylaris;
  8. condylar canal, canalis condylaris;
  9. hypoglossal canal, canalis n. hypoglossi;
  10. jugular notch, incisura jugularis;
  11. groove for sigmoid sinus, sulcus sinus sigmoidei;
  12. cruciform eminence, eminentia cruciformis;
  13. internal occipital protuberance, protuberantia occipitalis interna;
  14. internal occipital crest, crista occipitalis interna;
  15. groove for superior sagittal sinus, sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris;
  16. groove for transverse sinus, sulcus sinus transversi;
  17. external occipital protuberance, protuberantia occipitalis externa;
  18. external occipital crest, crista occipitalis externa;
  19. superior nuchal line, linea nuchalis superior;
  20. inferior nuchal line, linea nuchalis inferior;
  21. highest nuchal line, linea nuchalis superior;

 

      Ethmoid Bone

  1. ethmoidal labyrinths, labyrinthi ethmoidales;
  2. cribriform plate, lamina cribrosa;
  3. perpendicular plate, lamina perpendicularis;
  4. ethmoidal cells, cellulae ethmoidales;
  5. orbital plate, lamina orbitalis;
  6. superior nasal concha, concha nasalis superior;
  7. middle nasal concha, concha nasalis media;
  8. crista galli, crista galli;
  9. cribriform foramina, foramina cribrosa;

 

      Sphenoid Bone

  1. body of shpenoid, corpus ossis sphenoidalis;
  2. sella turcica, sella turcica;
  3. hypophisial fossa, fossa hypophysialis;
  4. dorsum sellae, dorsum sellae;
  5. tuberculum sellae, tuberculum sellae;
  6. posterior clinoid process, processus clinoideus posterior;
  7. prechiasmatic sulcus, sulcus prechiasmaticus;
  8. carotid sulcus, sulcus caroticus;
  9. sphenoidal crest, crista sphenoidalis;
  10. sphenoidal sinus, sinus sphenoidalis;
  11. lesser wing, ala minor;
  12. optic canal, canalis opticus;
  13. greater wing, ala major;
  14. foramen rotundum, foramen rotundum;
  15. foramen ovale, foramen ovale;
  16. foramen spinosum, foramen spinosum;
  17. superior orbital fissure, fissura orbitalis superior;
  18. infratemporal crest, crista infratemporalis;
  19. medial and lateral plates of pterygoid process, lamina medialis et lamina lateralis;
  20. pterygoid canal, canalis pterygoideus;
  21. pterygoid fossa, fossa pterygoidea;
  22. scaphoid fossa, fossa scaphoidea;
  23. pterygoid hamulus, hamulus pterygoideus;
  24. cerebral surface of greater wing, facies cerebralis;
  25. orbital surface of greater wing, facies orbitalis;
  26. temporal surface of greater wing, facies temporalis;
  27. infratemporal surface of greater wing, facies infratemporalis;
  28. maxillary surface of greater wing, facies maxillaries;

 

Parietal Bone

  1. sagittal border, margo sagittalis;
  2. frontal border, margo frontalis;
  3. occipital border, margo occipitalis;
  4. squamosal border, margo squamosus;
  5. frontal angle, angulus frontalis;
  6. occipital angle, angulus occipitalis;
  7. shenoidal angle, angulus sphenoidalis;
  8. mastoid angle, angulus mastoideus;
  9. parietal tuber, tuber parietale;
  10. inferior temporal line, linea temporalis inferior;
  11. superior temporal line, linea temporalis superior;
  12. groove for superior sagittal sinus, sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris;

 

Temporal Bone

  1. petrous part, pars petrosa (pyramid, pyramis);
  2. tympanic part, pars tympanica;
  3. mastoid part, pars mastoidea;
  4. squamous part, pars squamosa seu squama;
  1. apex of petrous part, apex partis petrosae;
  2. internal opening of carotid canal, apertura interna canalis carotici;
  3. musculotubal canal, canalis musculotubarius;
  4. petrosquamous fissure, fissura petrosquamosa;
  5. trigeminal impression, impressio trigeminalis;
  6. hiatus for greater petrosal nerve hiatus canalis nervi petrosi majoris;
  7. hiatus for lesser petrosal nerve, hiatus canalis nervi petrosi minoris;
  8. groove for greater petrosal nerve, sulcus nervi petrosi majoris;
  9. groove for lesser petrosal nerve, sulcus nervi petrosi minoris;
  10. arcuate eminence, eminentia arcuata;
  11. tegmen tympani, tegmen tympani;
  12. internal acoustic opening, porus acusticus internus;
  13. internal acoustic meatus, meatus acusticus internus;
  14. subarcuate fossa, fossa subarcuata;
  15. opening of vestibular canaliculus, apertura canaliculi vestibuli;
  16. opening of cochlear canaliculus, apertura canaliculi cochleae;
  17. jugular fossa, fossa jugularis;
  18. external opening of carotid canal, apertura externa canalis carotici;
  19. petrosal fossula, fossula petrosa;
  20. stylomastoid foramen, foramen stylomastoideum;
  21. styloid process, processus styloideus;
  22. mastoid process, processus mastoideus;
  23. mastoid notch, incisura mastoidea;
  24. external acoustic opening, porus acusticus externus;
  25. external acoustic meatus, meatus acusticus externus;
  26. tympanomastoid fissure, fissura tympanomastoidea;
  27. tympanosquamous fissure, fissura tympanosquamosa;
  28. petrotympanic fissure, fissura petrotympanica;
  29. parietal notch, incisura parietalis;
  30. occipital groove, sulcus arteriae occipitalis;
  31. mastoid foramen, foramen mastoideum;
  32. groove for sigmoid sinus, sulcus sinus sigmoidei;
  33. mastoid cells, cellulae mastoideae;
  34. mastoid antrum, antrum mastoideum;
  35. zygomatic process, processus zygomaticus;
  36. mandibular fossa, fossa mandibularis;
  37. articular tubercle, tuberculum articulare

 

 Maxilla

  1. body, corpus maxillae;
  2. ramus of mandible, ramus mandibulae;
  3. frontal process, processus frontalis;
  4. zygomatic process, processus zygomaticus;
  5. alveolar process, processus alveolaris;
  6. palatine process, processus palatinus;
  7. maxillary sinus, sinus maxillaris;
  8. maxillary hiatus, hiatus maxillaris;
  9. anterior surface, facies anterior;
  10. infratemporal surface, facies infratemporalis;
  11. orbital surface, facies orbitalis;
  12. nasal surface, facies nasalis.
  13. infraorbital margin, margo infraorbitalis;
  14. infraorbital foramen, foramen infraorbitale;
  15. canine fossa, fossa canina;
  16. nasal notch, incisura nasalis;
  17. anterior nasal spine, spina nasalis anterior;
  18. maxillary tuberosity, tuber maxillae;
  19. greater palatine groove, sulcus palatinus major;
  20. infraorbital canal, canalis infraorbitalis;
  21. lacrimal groove, sulcus lacrimalis;
  22. conchal crest, crista conchalis;
  23. anterior lacrimal crest, crista lacrimalis anterior;
  24. ethmoidal crest, crista ethmoidalis;
  25. alveolar arch, arcus alveolaris;
  26. dental alveoli, alveoli dentales;
  27. alveolar yokes, juga alveolaria;

 

 

 

Palatine Bone

  1. horizontal plate, lamina horizontalis;
  2. perpendicular plate, lamina perpendicularis;
  3. greater palatine groove, sulcus palatinus major;
  4. conchal crest, crista conchalis;
  5. ethmoidal crest, crista ethmoidalis;
  6. pyramidal process, processus pyramidalis;
  7. orbital process, processus orbitalis;
  8. sphenoidal process, processus sphenoidalis;
  9. sphenopalatine notch, incisura sphenopalatina

 

Zygomatic Bone

  1. infraorbital margin, margo infraorbitalis;
  2. lateral surface, facies lateralis;
  3. temporal surface, facies temporalis;
  4. orbital surface, facies orbitalis;
  5. zygomaticoorbital foramen, foramen zygomaticoorbitale;
  6. zygomaticofacial foramen, foramen zygomaticofaciale;
  7. zygomaticotemporal foramen, foramen zygomaticotemporale;
  8. temporal process, processus temporalis;
  9. frontal process, processus frontalis;

 

Lacrimal Bone

  1. posterior lacrimal crest, crista lacrimalis posterior;
  2. lacrimal hamulus, hamulus lacrimalis;
  3. lacrimal groove, sulcus lacrimalis;

 

  Mandible

  1. body of mandible, corpus mandibulae;
  2. alveolar arch, arcus alveolaris;
  3. dental alveoli, alveoli dentales;
  4. interalveolar septa, septa interalveolaria;
  5. mental protuberance, protuberantia mentalis;
  6. mental tubercle, tuberculum mentale;
  7. mental foramen, foramen mentale;
  8. mental spine, spina mentalis;
  9. sublingual fossa, fovea sublingualis;
  10. digastric fossa, fossa digastrica;
  11. mylohyoid line, linea mylohyoidea;
  12. submandibular fossa, fovea submandibularis;
  13. masseteric tuberosity, tuberositas masseterica;
  14. pterygoid tuberosity, tuberositas pterygoidea;
  15. mandibular foramen, foramen mandibulae;
  16. lingula of mandible, lingula mandibulae;
  17. mandibular notch, incisura mandibulae;
  18. coronoid process, processus coronoideus;
  19. buccinator crest, crista buccinatoria;
  20. condylar process, processus condylaris;
  21. head of mandible, caput mandibulae;
  22. neck of mandible, collum mandibulae;
  23. pterygoid fovea, fovea pterygoidea

 

 Hyoid Bone

  1. body, corpus;
  2. greater horns, cornua majora;
  3. lesser horns, cornua minora

 

Whole skull

208.foramen caecum, foramen caecum;

209.jugular foramen, foramen jugulare;

210. foramen lacerum, foramen lacerum;

211. piriform aperture, apertura piriformis;

  1. fossa for lacrimal sac, fossa sacci lacrimalis;
  2. incisive canal, canalis incisivus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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