Questions what you should know3

  1. The general data of muscles. Muscles of the face and head
  2. Muscles of the neck. Fasciae and topography of the neck.
  3. Muscles and fasciae of the back and chest
  4. Muscles and fasciae of the abdomen. The diaphragm
  5. Muscles, fasciae and topography of the upper limb
  6. Muscles, fasciae and topography of the lower limb
  7. Major control Myology

     1. The general data of the muscles. The muscles of the head and face.

Importance:

 There are 600 skeletal muscles in the human body. Skeletal muscles are the organs composed of striated muscle fibers, connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels and nerves.

Due to superficial localization, muscular system, especially the muscles of the head, the most frequently, compared to other organs, is subjected to mechanical and thermal effects (trauma, compression, myositis, burns, etc)

Knowledge of the muscular system is necessary to find the displaced bone fragments in case of fractures, to determine the location of vessels and nerves in different parts of the body during surgical interventions.

Before the study of the topic you should know:

  1. The structure of the skull bones.
  2. The types of the movements at the temporomandibular joints.

      Questions (use Myology textbook and Myology workbook to prepare the material and to do self-tests):

  1. Give the definition of the muscle as an organ.
  2. Describe the external and internal structure of the muscle (the muscle fibers, fibrilles, connective tissue layers surrounding the muscle fibers); the muscle attachment.
  3. Describe the function of the skeletal muscles.
  4. What muscle forms do you know?
  5. Give all the classifications of the muscles (according to different principles).
  6. How does a muscle work?
  7. What structures form accessory apparatus of a muscle?
  8. What is the fascia? What fasciae are distinguished?
  9. What are the fibrous and osseo-fibrous sheaths and canals?
  10. Describe the boundaries and regions of the head.
  11. Classify the muscles of the head according to the location, action and genesis.
  12. Describe the features of the mimic muscles.
  13. How are the mimic muscles grouped? Name these groups.
  14. Describe the location, attachment and action of the epicranius. What is galea aponeurotica? Describe the features of its structure and their clinical importance.
  15. Name and describe the muscles of the external ear. What is their action?
  16. Which muscles surround the eyes? Describe their attachment and action.
  17. Name the muscles surrounding the nose. Describe their attachment and action.
  18. Name the muscles surrounding the mouth. Group them in accordance with their function. Describe their location, attachment and action.
  19. Which muscles open the eyes?
  20. Which muscles close the eyes gently and tightly?
  21. What is the function of the lacrimal part of the orbicularis oculi?
  22. Which muscles expand the nostrils?
  23. Which muscles narrow the nostrils?
  24. Which muscle compresses the lips?
  25. Which muscles elevate the upper lip and angle of the mouth?
  26. Which muscles depress the lower lip and angle of the mouth?
  27. Which muscle rises the lower lip up?
  28. Which muscle forms the base of the lips?
  29. Which muscle forms the base of the cheek?
  30. Which muscles are included into the eyelid`s structure?
  31. What duct perforates the buccinators?
  32. Which muscles give the face the expression of surprise and bewildering?
  33. Which muscles provide the expression of sorrow?
  34. Which muscles provide the expression of anger?
  35. Which muscles provide the expression of disgust?
  36. Name the muscles of laughter.
  37. Name the masticatory muscles.
  38. Decsribe the location, attachment and action of the masticatory muscle.
  39. Which muscles protrude the mandible?
  40. Which muscles retract the mandible?
  41. Which muscles produce side by side movements of the mandible?
  42. Which muscles elevate the mandible?
  43. Which muscles depress the mandible?
  44. Which muscles of the head are covered by the fasciae? Name these fasciae and describe their attachment.
  45. Name and describe the fascial spaces of the head (their walls and contents). Explain the communications of the fascial spaces of the head with the different areas and cavities of the skull.

Practice:

  1. Epicranius, epicranius:
    • occipitofrontalis, m. occipitofrontalis;
    • temporoparietalis, m. temporoparietalis;
  2. Auricularis anterior, superior and posterior, auriculares anterior, superior et posterior:
  3. Corrugator supercilii, corrugator supercilii;
  4. Procerus, procerus;
  5. Orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oculi:
    • lacrimal part, pars lacrimalis;
    • palpebral part, pars palpebralis;
    • orbital part, pars orbitalis
  6. Nasalis, nasalis:
    • transverse part, pars transversa;
    • alar part, pars alaris ( depressor alae nasi);
  7. Orbicularis oris, orbicularis oris, consists of two parts: labial and marginal.
    • labial part, pars labialis;
    • marginal part, pars marginalis;
  8. Levator labii superioris, levator labii superioris;
  9. Levator labii superioris alequae nasi, levator labii superioris alequae nasi;
  10. Zygomaticus major and minor, zygomaticus major et minor;
  11. Risorius, risorius;
  12. Depressor anguli oris, depressor anguli oris;
  13. Levator anguli oris, levator anguli oris (m. caninus);
  14. Depressor labii inferioris, depressor labii inferioris;
  15. Mentalis, mentalis;
  16. Buccinator, buccinator;
  17. Masseter, masseter;
  18. Temporalis, temporalis;
  19. Lateral pterygoid, pterygoideus lateralis;
  20. Medial pterygoid, pterygoideus medialis.

2. The muscles of the neck. The fasciae and topography of the neck.

Importance:

                 The neck muscles give mobility to the head; they are involved in the acts of swallowing, inspiration; they protect the subclavian artery and brachial plexus. Inflammation of the muscles, their injury, purulent lesions and surgery in the neck (thyroid gland, submandibular and sublingual glands, regional lymph nodes) require good knowledge of anatomy and the topography of the cervical muscles and fasciae.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The principles of the muscle work.
  2. The structure of the hyoid bone, mandible, sternum, cervical vertebrae
  3. The types of the movements at the temporomandibular joints, intevertebral joints, atlantoaxial joints, atlantooccipital joints.

      Questions (use Myology textbook and Myology workbook to prepare the material and to do self-tests):

  1. Describe the boundaries and regions of the neck.
  2. Classify the cervical muscles according to the location and genesis.
  3. Name the superficial muscles. Describe their attachment and action.
  4. Name suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles. Describe the attachment and relations of each of these muscles. Describe the action of each of them.
  5. Name the deep muscle. Which of them form the lateral group? Which of them form the medial group? Which of them are suboccipital?
  6. Describe the attachment and relations of each of these muscles. Describe the action of each of them.
  7. Describe the relation of the medial cervical muscles to the vertebrae (what surface of the vertebral bodies are covered by these muscles?). How do they act on the movements of the neck (at the intervertebral joints)?
  8. Which cervical muscles form the floor of the oral cavity?
  9. Which muscle of the neck facilitates the blood flow through the superficial cervical veins?
  10. Which cervical muscles depress the mandible?
  11. Which cervical muscles fix the hyoid bone?
  12. Which cervical muscles act on the larynx, depressing it?
  13. Which cervical muscles flex the neck and head?
  14. Which cervical muscles bend the neck to the sides?
  15. Which cervical muscles extend the neck and head?
  16. Which cervical muscles rotate the neck and head?
  17. Which cervical muscles act only on the atlantoaxial and atlantooccipital joints?
  18. Which cervical muscles are the accessory muscles of inspiration? In what situations do they function as the respiratory muscles?
  19. Describe the cervical triangles. Name the muscles that form the boundaries of these triangles.
  20. Name three main cervical fasciae.
  21. Name the layers of the proper cervical fasciae in its suprahyoid part and in its infrahyoid part. What is the difference in layers between these two parts? Describe the relations of the layers of the proper cervical fasciae to surrounding muscles and their attachment.
  22. What is the cervical cavity? What viscera does it contain?
  23. Describe the layers of the endocervical fasciae and their disposition.
  24. Which vessels are covered by the parietal layer of the endocervical fascia?
  25. Which muscles are covered by the prevertebral lamina of the proper cervical fascia?
  26. Name the fascial spaces of the neck. Explain the location and walls of each of them. Describe the content of each fascial space.
  27. Describe the connections of the fascial cervical spaces with spaces of other body regions. Describe the clinical importance of the fascial spaces.
  28. What are the interscalene and antescalene spaces? What do they contain?
  29. Describe the previsceral and retrovisceral spaces and their connections.
  30. Describe the submandibular space and its content.

Practice:

  1. Platysma, platysma;
  2. Sternoclieidomastoid, sternocleidomastoideus;
  3. Omohyoid, omohyoideus;
  4. Sternohyoid, sternohyoideus;
  5. Strenothyroid, sternothyroideus;
  6. Thyrohyoid, thyrohyoideus;
  7. Genioglossus, genioglossus;
  8. Hyoglossus, hyoglossus;
  9. Styloglossus, styloglossus;
  10. Stylopharyngeus, stylopharyngeus;
  11. Digastric, digastricus;
  12. Stylohyoid, stylohyoideus;
  13. Mylohyoid, mylohyoideus;
  14. Geniohyoid, geniohyoideus;
  15. Anterior scalene, scaleni anterior;
  16. Middle scalene, scalenus medius;
  17. Posterior scalene, scalenus posterior;
  18. Longus colli, longus colli;
  19. Longus captis, longus capitis;
  20. Rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis anterior;
  21. Rectus capitis lateralis, rectus capitis lateralis;
  22. Rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior major;
  23. Rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior minor;
  24. Obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis superior;
  25. Obliquus capitis inferior, obliquus capitis inferior;
  26. Anterior region of neck, regio cervicalis anterior;
  27. Sternocleidomastoid region of neck, regio sternocleidomstoidea
  28. Lateral region of neck, regio cervicalis lateralis;
  29. Posterior region of neck, regio cervicalis posterior;
  30. Omohyoid (carotid) triangle,trigonum omohyoideum (trigonum caroticum);
  31. Omotracheal triangle,trigonum omotracheale;
  32. Submandibular triangle,trigonum submandibulare;
  33. Retromandibular fossa,fossa retromandibularis;
  34. Interscalenus space, spatium interscalenum;
  35. Omotrapezoid triangle, trigonum omotrapezoideum
  36. Omoclavicular triangle, trigonum omoclaviculare

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Cervical triangles and Fasciae of the neck 

3. The muscles and fasciae of the back. The muscles and fasciae of the chest. 

Importance:

   To know the anatomy of the back muscles is important to study the next anatomy topics. To know the attachment of the back muscles and their action is necessary for traumatologists to determine the variants of the bony fragment displacement in case of fracture of shoulder girdle bones, spine and ribs and choose the treatment tactic.

      Chest muscles have a very important functional role. They participate in the act of breathing during inhalation and exhalation. Some chest muscles are attached to the humerus and the bones of the shoulder girdle providing their movements.

     To know anatomy of the chest muscles is necessary in clinical practice: during surgery in the thoracic cavity; to understand the mechanisms of shouder joint dislocation and tactics of their reposition; to determine the variants of the bony fragment displacement in case of fracture of shoulder girdle bones and humerus.

      Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The principles of the muscle work.
  2. The structure of the thorax, vertebral column, pelvic bones, humerus, scapula.
  3. The types of the movements at the intevertebral, sternocostal, costovertebral joints, shoulder joints, sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints.

      Questions (use Myology textbook and Myology workbook to prepare the material and to do self-tests):

  1. Describe the boundaries and regions of the back.
  2. Classify the muscles of the back according to the location and genesis.
  3. Name the superficial muscles of the back. Which of them are attached to the bones of the upper limb? Which of them are attached to the ribs?
  4. Describe the attachment and relations of each superficial muscle of the back. Describe the action of each of these muscles.
  5. Name the deep muscles of the back. Which of them are long? Which of them are short?
  6. Describe the attachment and relations of each deep muscle of the back. Describe the action of each of these muscles.
  7. Which muscles of the back: rotates the humerus inwards? move the ribs, participating in inspiration? move the scapula? extend the neck and head? bend the neck to the sides? rotate the neck?
  8. Which muscles of the back extend the vertebral column? rotate the vertebral column? bend the vertebral column to the sides?
  9. Describe the muscles of the back in layers sequentially from deep to superficial.
  10. Name the fasciae of the back. Describe the location (relations to surrounding muscles) and attachment of the layers of the proper facia of the back. Describe the formation of the osseo-fibrous sheath for erector spinae.
  11. Describe the boundaries of the lumbar triangle and lumbar rhombus. Explain their clinical importance. Why are they called the ‘weak’ places of the back?
  12. Describe the boundaries and regions of the chest.
  13. Classify the chest muscles. Which muscles of the chest are truncipetal (truncifugal)?
  14. Name the chest muscles which are attached to the bones of the upper limb. Name the proper muscles of the chest.
  15. Describe the attachment and relations of each muscle which is attached to the bones of the upper limb. Describe the action of each of these muscles.
  16. Describe the attachment and relations of each proper muscle of the chest. Describe the action of each of these muscles.
  17. Which muscles of the chest: move the clavicle? move the ribs, participating in inspiration and expiration? act on the humerus? move the scapula? Describe all these movements.
  18. Name the fasciae of the chest. Describe the relations of the pectoral fasciae to the mammary gland. Describe the location (relations to surrounding muscles) and attachment of the layers of the proper pectoral fascia. Describe the location of the endothoracic fascia.
  19. Describe the boundaries of the pectoral triangles.
  20. Describe the fascial spaces of the chest, their location and content.

Practice:

MUSCLES AND TOPOGRAPHY OF BACK

  1. Trapezius, trapezius;
  2. Latissimus dorsi, latissimus dorsi;
  3. Levator scapulae, levator scapulae;
  4. Rhomboid major, rhomboideus major
  5. Rhomboid minor, et m. rhomboideus minor;
  6. Serratus posterior superior, serratus posterior superior;
  7. Serratus posterior inferior, serratus posterior inferior;
  8. Splenius capitis, splenius capitis;
  9. Splenius cervicis, splenius cervicis;
  10. Erector spinae, erector spinae;
  • iliocostalis, iliocostalis;
  • longissimus, longissimus;
  • spinalis, spinalis;
  1. Transversospinales, transversospinales;
  2. Interspinales cervicis, thoracis and lumborum, interspinales cervicis, thoracis, lumborum;
  3. Intertransversarii, intertransversarii;
  4. Lumbar triangle, trigonum lumbale;
  5. Lumbar rhombus, rhombus lumbalis

           MUSCLES AND TOPOGRAPHY OF CHEST

  1. Pectoralis major, pectoralis major ;
  2. Pectoralis minor, pectoralis minor;
  3. Subclavius, subclavius;
  4. Serratus anterior, serratus anterior;
  5. External intercostal muscles, intercostales externi;
  6. Levatores costarum, levatores costarum;
  7. Internal intercostal muscles, intercostales interni;
  8. Subcostales, subcostales;
  9. Transversus thoracis, transversus thoracis;
  10. Clavipectoral triangle, trigonum clavipectorale;
  11. Pectoral triangle, trigonum pectorale;
  12. Subpectoral triangle, trigonum subpectorale;

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Topographical lines of the thorax and Weak places of the back

4. The muscles and fasciae of the abdomen. The diaphragm. The ‘weak’ places of the abdomen and diaphragm.

Importance:

    The diaphragm not only separates thoracic and abdominal cavities  but also serves as a main respiratory muscle. The great vessels (aorta and inferior vena cava), thoracic duct, esophagus, sympathetic trunk and splanchnic nerves pass through the diaphragm. The surgical treatment in case of diaphragmatic hernias requires good knowledge of the diaphragm structure.

     Abdominal muscles form the walls of the abdominal cavity. They bend the spine, they are involved in respiration. All doctors, especially surgeons, obstetricians, gynecologists and therapeutists often have to meet the pathology of the anterior abdominal wall and pathology of abdominal organs.

     Doctores need to know the “weak” places of the abdominal walls to understand the hernia formation and location because hernias often require urgent surgery. 

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The principles of the muscle work.
  2. The structure of the thorax, vertebral column, pelvic bones.
  3. The types of the movements at the intevertebral joints, sternocostal and costovertebral joints.

Questions (use Myology textbook and Myology workbook to prepare the material and to do self-tests):

  1. Describe the boundaries and regions of the abdomen.
  2. Classify the abdominal muscles.
  3. Name the abdominal muscles of anterolateral group. Which of them are long? Which of them are wide?
  4. What muscle forms the posterior group?
  5. Describe the attachment and relations of each anterolateral abdominal muscle. Describe the action of each of these muscles.
  6. Name the posterior abdominal muscle. Describe its attachment and action.
  7. How do the abdominal muscles act on the vertebral column?
  8. Which abdominal muscles draw the pelvis to the thorax in climbing?
  9. What is the abdominal pressure? Which muscles form it?
  10. Name the fasciae of the abdomen. Describe the layers of the proper abdominal fascia, their location and relations to surrounding muscles. What are the intercrural fibers? What is the relation between the proper abdominal fascia and cremasteric fascia?
  11. Describe the endoabdominal fascia. What parts of this fascia are distinguished? Describe the location of all these parts. What is adminiculum lineae albae?
  12. Name the layers of the anterior abdominal wall, lateral abdominal wall and posterior abdominal wall, in order beginning from the skin.
  13. Name all the ‘weak’ places of the abdominal walls. Why these places are called weak? What is their clinical importance?
  14. What is the hernia? How and why can it be formed?
  15. Describe the formation of the rectus sheath. What are the differences between the layers of the rectus sheath above the navel and below it? What is the arcuate line?
  16. Describe the formation of linea alba.
  17. Describe the location of the inguinal canal. How many walls does it have? How are they formed? Describe each of them.
  18. Describe the superficial and deep inguinal rings. How are they formed? Where can the superficial inguinal ring be palpated? What is its normal size?
  19. What is the content of the inguinal canal in males and females?
  20. What are the features of the inguinal hernia formation in females and males? Why do the inguinal hernias occur more often in males than in females?
  21. Describe the boundaries of the lumbar triangle.
  22. Describe the location of the muscular part the tendinous center of the diaphragm. What is skeletotopy of the diaphragmatic domes?
  23. What fasciae and serous layers cover the diaphragm from the side of the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
  24. What parts of the muscular periphery of the diaphragm are distinguished?
  25. Describe the lumbar part of the diaphragm. What legs from this part? Describe the attachment of the legs. What are the lateral, medial and median ligaments?
  26. Describe the formation of the aortic and oesophageal hiatuses. What are the differences between them? Why the aorta can not be compressed by the muscle fibers of the diaphragm? What structure passes together with the aorta through the aortic hiatus? Which nerves pass together with the oesophagus through the oesophageal hiatus?
  27. Describe the slits between diaphragmatic crura. What vessels and nerves pass through them?
  28. Describe the tendinous center: its level, its opening.
  29. Which organs adjoin the diaphragm from the side of the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
  30. What triangles exist in the diaphragm? What are they filled with? Why are they termed ‘weak’ places of the diaphragm?
  31. Using the previous topics, name all the muscles of inspiration: what muscles are main, and what muscles are accessory?
  32. Using the previous topics, name all the muscles of expiration.

Practice:

MUSCLES AND TOPOGRAPHY OF ABDOMEN

  1. Rectus abdominis, rectus abdominis;
  2. Pyramidalis, pyramidalis;
  3. External oblique muscle of abdomen, obliquus externus abdominis;
  4. Internal oblique muscle of abdomen, obliquus internus abdominis;
  5. Transversus abdominis, transversus abdominis;
  6. Quadratus lumborum, quadratus lumborum;
  7. Superficial inguinal ring, anulus inguinalis superficialis;
  8. Deep inguinal ring, anulus inguinalis profundus;
  9. Linea alba, linea alba;
  10. Umbilical ring, anulus ubbilicalis;

          Diaphragm

  1. Central tendon, centrum tendineum;
  2. Muscular part;
  3. Sternal part of the diaphragm, pars sternalis diaphragmae;
  4. Costal part of the diaphragm, pars costalis diaphragmae;
  5. Lumbar part of the diaphragm, pars lumbalis diaphragmae;
  6. Medial crus, crus mediale;
  7. Intermediate crus, crus intermedium;
  8. Lateral crus, crus laterale;
  9. Median arcuate ligament, ligamentum arcuatum medianum;
  10. Medial arcuate ligament, ligamentum arcuatum mediale;
  11. Lateral arcuate ligament, ligamentum arcuatum laterale;
  12. Aortic hiatus, hiatus aorticus,
  13. Oesophageal hiatus, hiatus oesophageus;
  14. Caval opening, foramen venae cavae;
  15. Sternocostal triangle, trigonum sternocostale;
  16. Lumbocostal triangle, trigonum lumbocostale

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Abdominal regions, Structure of the diaphragm, Structure of the rectus sheath below umbilicusStructure of the rectus sheath above umbilicus

5. The muscles, fasciae and topography of the upper limb.  

Importance:

              The muscles of the shoulder and upper arm provide the movements in the shoulder and elbow joints. The muscle or joint diseases lead to disorders of movements in these joints. In turn, the muscle inactivity causes the pathological changes in the muscles that worsens the disease process.

          To make correct diagnosis, understand  the pathogenesis of the disease and to treat successfully, a doctor must know the anatomy and function of the shoulder and upper arm muscles. To know the structure of these muscles is necessary to determine the way of humeral fragments in fractures.

               For the correct diagnostics of diseases or injuries of forearm and hand muscles, to determine the displacement of bone fragments in fractures, and for correct treatment of fractures a doctor should know the anatomy and function of these muscles.

               To understand the innervation of the upper limb muscle, to find the blood vessels and nerves, passing in the muscular canals and grooves formed by thesemuscles, a doctor needs to know the topographical anatomy of upper limb very well.

Before the study of the topic you should know:

  1. The principles of the muscle work.
  2. The structure of the humerus, radius, ulna, bones of hand.
  3. The types of the movements at the shoulder, elbow, radioulnar, wrist joints and joints of hand.

      Questions:

  1. Describe the regions of the upper limb.
  2. Give the classification of the shoulder girdle muscles.
  3. Name the muscle comprising superficial layer of the shoulder.
  4. Name the muscles located on the posterior surface of the scapula.
  5. Name the muscles located on the anterior surface of the scapula.
  6. Describe the attachment, relations and action of the shoulder girdle muscles.
  7. Classify the brachial muscles.
  8. Name the anterior brachial muscles.
  9. Name the posterior brachial muscles.
  10. Describe the attachment, relations and action of the brachial muscles.
  11. Classify the antebrachial muscles.
  12. Name the anterior antebrachial muscles. Which of them form the superficial layer? Which of them form the deep layer?
  13. Name the posterior antebrachial muscles. Which of them form the superficial layer? Which of them form the deep layer?
  14. Describe the attachment, relations and action of the antebrachial muscles.
  15. Where are the muscles of the hand located?
  16. Classify the muscles of the hand.
  17. Name the muscles comprising the lateral group on the hand.
  18. Name the muscles comprising the medial group on the hand.
  19. Name the muscles comprising the middle group on the hand.
  20. What is the thenar region? Which muscles form it?
  21. What is the hypothenar region? Which muscles form it?
  22. Describe the attachment, relations and action of the hand muscles.
  23. Which muscles act on the shoulder joint (remember the previous topics)? Which muscles flex the upper arm? extend the upper arm? rotate the upper arm medially? rotate the upper arm laterally? abduct the upper arm? adduct the upper arm?
  24. Which muscles act on the elbow joint? Which muscles act on the distal radioulnar joint? Which muscles flex the forearm? extend the forearm? rotate the forearm medially? rotate the forearm laterally?
  25. Which muscles act on the wrist joint? flex the hand? extend the hand? adduct the hand? abduct the hand?
  26. Which muscles act on the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints? Which muscles flex the thumb and other fingers? extend the thumb and other fingers? adduct the thumb and other fingers? abduct the thumb and other fingers?
  27. Describe the fasciae of the shoulder, upper arm, forearm and hand. Describe their attachment and relations to surrounding mucles.
  28. Describe fibrous and osseo-fibrous sheaths existing in the upper arm; what muscles pass in these sheaths?
  29. Which muscles bound the anatomical snuff box?
  30. What are the flexor and extensor retinacula?
  31. What canals are formed under the flexor retinaculum? Describe their contents.
  32. What canals are formed under the extensor retinaculum? The tendons of which muscles pass through them? Name them in order.
  33. Describe the structure of the palmar aponeurosis.
  34. What is the difference between axillary fossa and axillary cavity? Name the walls of the axillary cavity. Which muscles form each of them? Describe the content of the axillary cavity?
  35. Which muscles bound the quadriangular space? What vessels and nerves pass through it?
  36. Which muscles bound the triangular space? What vessels pass through it?
  37. Describe the walls and content of the humeromuscular canal, medial and lateral biccipital grooves.
  38. Which muscles form the cubital fossa? Describe the grooves of the cubital fossa and their content.
  39. How are the ulnar and supinator canals formed? What do they contain? Which groove of the forearm is connected with the supinator canal?
  40. Which muscles bound the ulnar, radial and median grooves? What vessels and nerves pass through these grooves?
  41. Describe the synovial sheaths of the hand. How are they formed? Explain the features of the synovial sheaths of the first and fifth fingers and their clinical importance.

See the Topography of limbs

Practice:

MUSCLES OF SHOULDER AND UPPER ARM

  1. Deltoid, deltoideus;
  2. Supraspinatus, supraspinatus;
  3. Inraspinatus, infraspinatus;
  4. Teres minor, teres minor;
  5. Teres major, teres major;
  6. Subscapularis, subscapularis;
  7. Biceps brachii, biceps brachii;
  8. Coracobrachialis, coracobrachialis;
  9. Brachialis, brachialis;
  10. Triceps brachii, triceps brachii;
  11. Anconeus, anconeus;

MUSCLES OF FOREARM

  1. Brachioradialis, brachioradialis;
  2. Pronator teres, pronator teres;
  3. Flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi radialis;
  4. Palmaris longus, palmaris longus;
  5. Flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum superficialis;
  6. Flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi ulnaris;
  7. Flexor pollicis longus, flexor pollicis longus;
  8. Flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum profundus;
  9. Pronator quadratus, pronator quadratus;
  10. Extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis longus;
  11. Extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis brevis;
  12. Extensor digitorum, extensor digitorum;
  13. Extensor digiti minimi, extensor digiti minimi;
  14. Extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi ulnaris;
  15. Supinator, supinator;
  16. Abductor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus;
  17. Extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis brevis;
  18. Extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus;
  19. Extensor indicis, extensor indicis;

MUSCLES OF HAND

  1. Abductor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis;
  2. Flexor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis;
  3. Opponens pollicis, opponens polliсis;
  4. Adductor pollicis, adductor pollicis;
  5. Palmaris brevis, palmaris brevis;
  6. Abductor digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi;
  7. Flexor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi;
  8. Opponens digiti minimi, opponens digiti minimi;
  9. Lumbricales, lumbricales;
  10. Palmar interossei, interossei palmares;
  11. Dorsal interossei, interossei dorsales;
  12. Palmar aponeurosis, aponeurosis palmaris

TOPOGRAPHY OF UPPER LIMB

  1. Axillary fossa, fossa axillaris;
  2. Axillary cavity, cavitas axillaris;
  3. Triangular space, foramen trilaterum;
  4. Quadrangular space, foramen quadrilaterum;
  5. Clavipectoral triangle, trigonum clavipectorale;
  6. Pectoral triangle, trigonum pectorale;
  7. Subpectoral triangle, trigonum subpectorale.
  8. Medial bicipital groove, sulcus bicipitalis medialis;
  9. Lateral bicipital groove, sulcus bicipitalis lateralis;
  10. Cubital fossa, fossa cubitalis;
  11. Anterior medial cubital groove, sulcus cubitalis anterior medialis;
  12. Anterior lateral cubital groove, sulcus cubitalis anterior lateralis;
  13. Posterior medial cubital groove, sulcus cubitalis posterior medialis;
  14. Posterior lateral cubital groove, sulcus cubitalis posterior lateralis;
  15. Radial groove, sulcus radialis;
  16. Median groove, sulcus medianus;
  17. Ulnar groove, sulcus ulnaris;
  18. Flexor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum flexorum;
  19. Extensor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum extensorum;
  20. Carpal tunnel, canalis carpalis
  21. Anatomical snuff box (radial fossa, foveola radialis)

6. The muscles, fasciae and topography of the lower limb.  

Importance:

         The topic about muscles the pelvic girdle and femur is the basis to study  the anatomy of the next topics. Knowledge of the anatomy of these muscles allows you to learn the topography in the pelvic region and femur, the places where the major neurovascular bundles pass; this is important for the searching of vessels and nerves in the lower limb surgery. To know the muscle position and their functions is necessary to determine the displacement of the bone fragments in case of fractures. It is also important to choose the tactic to treat patients with fractures.

          Leg muscles are involved in walking and maintaining the body in the upright position; they move the distal part of the lower limb, the foot. The muscles of the foot move toes.

         To know these muscles is necessary in surgery on the leg and foot, to understand the mechanisms of fractures, dislocation of the foot joints, to choose the tactic of treatment of fractures and dislocations.

          Fossae, sulci, canals of the lower limb transmit the vessels and nerves. To know their topography is needed in the provision of first aid in case of major vessel injury and in surgery on the lower limbs. Knowledge of the femoral canal structure allows you to diagnose femoral hernias and to find the treatment strategy.

Before the study of the topic you should know:

  1. The principles of the muscle work.
  2. The structure of the femur, tibia, fubula, bones of foot.
  3. The types of the movements at the hip, knee, ankle joints and joints of foot.

      Questions (You may use Myology textbook and see the Topography of limbs ):

  1. Describe the regions of the lower limb.
  2. Give the classification of the pelvis.
  3. Name the internal pelvic muscles.
  4. Name the external pelvic muscles.
  5. Describe the attachment, relations and action of each pelvic muscle.
  6. Classify the femoral muscles.
  7. Name the anterior femoral muscles.
  8. Name the medial femoral muscles.
  9. Name the posterior femoral muscles.
  10. Describe the attachment, relations and action of each femoral muscle.
  11. Classify the muscles of the leg.
  12. Name the anterior crural muscles.
  13. Name the lateral crural muscles.
  14. Name the posterior crural muscles. Which of them form the superficial (deep) layer?
  15. Describe the attachment, relations and action of each crural muscle.
  16. Classify the foot muscles.
  17. Name the muscle of the foot dorsum.
  18. Name the plantar muscles of the foot. Which of them form the medial group? Which of them form the lateral group? Which of them form the middle group?
  19. Describe the attachment, relations and action of each foot muscle.
  20. Which muscles of pelvis act on the vertebral column, assisting in its flexion?
  21. Which muscles help to keep the vertical position of the body?
  22. Which muscles act on the hip joint? flex the thigh? extend the thigh? rotate the thigh medially? rotate the thigh laterally? abduct the thigh? adduct the thigh?
  23. Which muscles act on the knee joint? flex the leg? extend the leg? rotate the leg medially? rotate the leg laterally?
  24. Which muscles act on the joint of the foot? flex the foot? extend the foot? adduct the foot? abduct the foot? rotate the foot medially and laterally?
  25. Which muscles act on the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints? Which muscles flex the big toe and other toes? extend the big toe and other toes? adduct the big toe and other toes? abduct the big toe and other toes?
  26. Describe the fasciae of the pelvis, thigh, leg and foot. Describe their attachment and relations to surrounding muscles.
  27. What fibrous sheaths exist in the thigh?
  28. Describe the fibrous sheaths in the leg.
  29. Describe the retinacula of the leg.
  30. How many canals are formed under the inferior extensor retinaculum? Describe their content in order.
  31. What canals are formed under the inferior peroneal retinaculum? Describe their content.
  32. How many canals are formed under the flexor retinaculum? Describe their content in order.
  33. Describe the structure of the plantar aponeurosis.
  34. Describe the borders of the suprapiriform and infrapiriform foramina. What vessels and nerves pass through them?
  35. How is the obturator canal formed? What does it transmit?
  36. Describe the borders of lacuna vasorum and musculorum. What do they transmit?
  37. Which muscles bound the femoral triangle?
  38. Which grooves are recognized within the femoral triangle? Which vessels and nerve lie in these grooves?
  39. What canal is the continuation of the femoral triangle?
  40. Name the walls of the adductor canal. What does it transmit?
  41. Where does the adductor canal open?
  42. Name the borders of the popliteal fossa. What vessels and nerves does it contain?
  43. Which canal is the continuation of the popliteal fossa?
  44. Describe the walls of the cruropopliteal canal and its content.
  45. Which canal is the branch of the cruropopliteal canal?
  46. Describe the walls of the inferior musculoperoneal canal and its content.
  47. Describe the walls of the superior musculoperoneal canal and its content.
  48. What muscles form the medial and lateral plantar grooves? What vessels and nerves pass in these grooves?

 

Practice:

PELVIC MUSCLES

  1. Iliopsoas, iliopsoas;
  2. Psoas major, psoas major;
  3. Iliacus, iliacus;
  4. Psoas minor, psoas minor;
  5. Piriformis, piriformis;
  6. Obturator internus, obturatorius internus;
  7. Gluteus maximus, gluteus maximus;
  8. Gluteus medius, gluteus medius;
  9. Gluteus minimus, gluteus minimus;
  10. Superior gemellus, gemellus superior;
  11. Inferior gemellus, gemellus inferior;
  12. Quadratus femoris, quadratus femoris;
  13. Obturator externus, obturatorius externus;
  14. Tensor fasciae latae, tensor fasciae latae;

MUSCLES OF THIGH

  1. Sartorius, sartorius;
  2. Quadriceps femoris, quadriceps femoris;
  3. Rectus femoris, rectus femoris;
  4. Vastus lateralis, vastus lateralis;
  5. Vastus intermedius, vastus intermedius;
  6. Vastus medialis, vastus medialis;
  7. Gracilis, gracilis;
  8. Pectineus, pectineus;
  9. Adductor longus, adductor longus;
  10. Adductor brevis, adductor brevis;
  11. Adductor magnus, adductor magnus;
  12. Biceps femoris, biceps femoris;
  13. Semitendinosus, semitendinosus;
  14. Semimembranosus, semimembranosus;

MUSCLES OF LEG

  1. Tibialis anterior, tibialis anterior;
  2. Extensor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus;
  3. Extensor hallucis longus, extensor hallucis longus;
  4. Peroneus longus, peroneus longus;
  5. Peroneus brevis, peroneus brevis;
  6. Triceps surae, triceps surae;
  7. Gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius;
  8. Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon, tendo calcaneus seu Achillis;
  9. Soleus, soleus;
  10. Plantaris, plantaris;
  11. Popliteus, popliteus;
  12. Flexor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum longus;
  13. Tibialis posterior, tibialis posterior;
  14. Flexor hallucis longus, flexor hallucis longus;

MUSCLES OF FOOT

  1. Extensor digitorum brevis, extensor digitorum brevis;
  2. Extensor hallucis brevis, extensor hallucis brevis;
  3. Abductor hallucis, abductor hallucis;
  4. Flexor hallucis brevis, flexor hallucis brevis;
  5. Adductor hallucis, adductor hallucis;.
  6. Flexor digitorum brevis, flexor digitorum brevis;
  7. Quadratus plantae, quadratus plantae;
  8. Lumbricals, lumbricales;
  9. Interossei plantares, interossei plantares;
  10. Interossei dorsales, interossei dorsales;
  11. Abductor digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi;
  12. Flexor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis;

TOPOGRAPHY OF LOWER LIMB

  1. Superior extensor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum extensorum superius;
  2. Inferior extensor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum extensorum inferius;
  3. Flexor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum flexorum;
  4. Superior peroneal retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum peroneorum superius;
  5. Inferior peroneal retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum peroneorum inferius;
  6. Suprapiriform foramen, foramen suprapiriforme;
  7. Infrapiriform foramen, foramen infrapiriforme;
  8. Obturator canal, canalis obturatorius;
  9. Muscular space, lacuna musculorum;
  10. Vascular space, lacuna vasorum;
  11. Femoral triangle, trigonum femorale;
  12. Iliopectineal groove, sulcus iliopectineus;
  13. Anterior femoral groove, sulcus femoralis anterior;
  14. Femoropopliteal (adductor) canal, canalis femoropopliteus;
  15. Popliteal fossa, fossa popliteal;
  16. Cruropliteal canal, canalis cruropopliteus;
  17. Canalis musculoperoneus superior
  18. Canalis musculoperoneus inferior
  19. Medial planatar groove, sulcus plantaris medialis;
  20. Lateral plantar groove, sulcus plantaris lateralis;

7. Questions for the major Myology

  1. The structure of the muscle. The description of the fasciae of the body (the definition of the fascia; the types of the fasciae, general arrangement; the function).
  1. The description of the masticatory muscles (names, attachment, action).
  1. The features of the muscles of facial expression.
  2. Which muscles open and close the eyes and the lips? Which muscle form the cheek? Which muscle form the oral cavity floor?
  1. Which muscles act on the temporomandibular joint, moving the mandible (elevate, depress, provide side-by-side movements, protrude, retract)?
  1. Fasciae of the head: names, location.
  1. Fascial spaces of the head: names, walls and communications.
  1. Cervical triangles: names, borders, content.
  1. Fasciae of the neck: names, arrangement.
  1. Fascial spaces in the neck: names, walls and communications.
  1. Name the muscles which bend the neck and head forward, backward, to the sides; rotate the neck and head.
  1. Name the muscles of the back in layers (in order from superficial to deep). Which muscles of the abdomen adjoin the deep muscles of the back from the front side?
  1. Describe the ‘weak’ places of the back (lumbar rhombus and lumbar triangle): their borders and clinical importance.
  1. Name the muscles which bend the thoracic and lumbar parts of the vertebral column forward, backward, to the sides; rotate these parts of the vertebral column.
  1. Describe the fasciae of the back: names, arrangement.
  1. Name the main and accessory muscles of inspiration (inhalation).

   18. Name the main and accessory muscles of exspiration (exhalation).

  1. Describe the structure of the diaphragm: the parts, the structure of the muscular part. Describe the crura of the lumbar part of the diaphragm, their attachment.
  1. What openings has the diaphragm? What organs pass through the openings and through the spaces between the crura of the lumbar part?
  1. Describe the fasciae of the chest: names, arrangement, fascial spaces and their clinical importance.
  1. Describe the triangles of the chest: names, borders.

  23. Describe the topographical lines of the thorax.

  1. Describe the walls of the axillary cavity: anterior, posterior, medial and lateral.
  1. Describe the borders of the foramen trilaterum and quadrilaterum.
  1. Name the muscles of the anterior and lateral abdominal walls in layers (in order from superficial to deep). Describe the functions of these muscles. What fascia lines them from inside?
  1. Name the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. Which muscles of the back adjoin these muscles posteriorly? Describe the functions of these muscles. What fascia lines them from inside?
  1. Describe the regions of the anterior abdominal wall.
  1. Name the ‘weak’ places of the abdomen. Why they are called ‘weak’ places?
  1. Describe the walls of the inguinal canal: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior. Describe the superficial and deep inguinal rings. Explain the clinical importance of this canal.
  1. Which muscles form the anterior and posterior groups in the upper arm? What are their general actions?
  1. What muscles act on the shoulder joint, moving the arm: flex, extend, rotate medially and laterally, abduct and adduct?
  1. Describe the boundaries of the bicipital grooves and humeromuscular canal.
  1. What muscles form the anterior group of the forearm? What are their general actions?
  1. What muscles form the posterior group of the forearm? What are their general actions?
  1. Describe the boundaries of the cubital fossa and its grooves.
  1. Describe the borders of the median, radial and ulnar grooves of the forearm.
  1. Describe the flexor retinaculum and carpal canals: names, walls, content.
  1. Describe the extensor retinaculum and extensor canals of the forearm.
  1. What muscles act on the elbow joint: flex, extend, rotate medially and laterally?
  1. Name the muscle groups of the hand. Name the muscles of the thenar, describe their arrangement and function.
  1. Name the muscle groups of the hand. Name the muscles of the hypothenar, describe their arrangement and function.
  1. Name the muscle groups of the hand. Name the muscles of the palmar depression; describe their arrangement and function.
  1. Describe the arrangement of the tendons of the antebrachial muscles and their synovial sheaths on the hand; describe the structure of the palmar aponeurosis.
  1. Name the internal and external muscles of the pelvis. Describe their actions.
  1. Describe the boundaries of foramen suprapiriforme and infrapiriforme? What is their function?
  1. Which muscles act on the hip joint, moving the thigh (flex, extend, rotate medially and laterally, abduct and adduct)?
  1. Which muscles form the muscle groups in the thigh (anterior, medial, posterior)? Describe the general action of each group.
  1. Describe the boundaries of the lacuna vasorum and musculorum; their location, relations between them. What vessels, nerves and muscle do they transmit?
  1. Describe the boundaries of the femoral triangle. Describe the walls of the adductor canal; where does it open and what does it transmit?
  1. Which muscles form the muscle groups in the leg (anterior, lateral, posterior)? Describe the general action of each group.
  1. Which muscles act on the knee joint, moving the leg (flex, extend, rotate medially and laterally)?
  1. Describe the borders and content of the popliteal fossa. What canal is a direct continuation of this fossa?
  1. Describe the walls of the cruropopliteal canal, superior and inferior musculoperoneal canals. What is their function?
  1. Which muscles act on the talocrural joint and the joints of the foot, moving the foot (flex, extend, rotate medially and laterally, abduct and adduct)?
  1. Describe the muscles of the foot dorsum (names, arrangement, function).
  1. Name the plantar muscle groups. Describe the muscles of the medial group (names, arrangement, function).
  1. Name the plantar muscle groups. Describe the muscles of the lateral group (names, arrangement, function).
  1. Name the plantar muscle groups. Describe the muscles of the middle group (names, arrangement, function).
  1. Describe the fasciae of the thigh. Describe the hiatus saphenus. What is it practical importance?
  1. Describe the extensor retinacula (superior and inferior) and extensor canals of the leg.
  1. Describe the flexor retinaculum and flexor canals of the leg.
  1. Describe the peroneal retinacula (superior and inferior). The tendons of which muscle pass under these retinacula?
  1. Describe the arrangement of the tendons of the crural muscles and their synovial sheaths on the foot; describe the structure of the plantar aponeurosis.

Practice: 

MUSCLES AND TOPOGRAPHY OF BACK

  1. Trapezius, trapezius;
  2. Latissimus dorsi, latissimus dorsi;
  3. Levator scapulae, levator scapulae;
  4. Rhomboid major, rhomboideus major
  5. Rhomboid minor, et m. rhomboideus minor;
  6. Serratus posterior superior, serratus posterior superior;
  7. Serratus posterior inferior, serratus posterior inferior;
  8. Splenius capitis, splenius capitis;
  9. Splenius cervicis, splenius cervicis;
  10. Erector spinae, erector spinae;
  • iliocostalis, iliocostalis;
  • longissimus, longissimus;
  • spinalis, spinalis;
  1. Transversospinales, transversospinales;
  2. Interspinales cervicis, thoracis and lumborum, interspinales cervicis, thoracis, lumborum;
  3. Intertransversarii, intertransversarii;
  4. Lumbar triangle, trigonum lumbale;
  5. Lumbar rhombus, rhombus lumbalis

 

           MUSCLES AND TOPOGRAPHY OF CHEST

  1. Pectoralis major, pectoralis major ;
  2. Pectoralis minor, pectoralis minor;
  3. Subclavius, subclavius;
  4. Serratus anterior, serratus anterior;
  5. External intercostal muscles, intercostales externi;
  6. Levatores costarum, levatores costarum;
  7. Internal intercostal muscles, intercostales interni;
  8. Subcostales, subcostales;
  9. Transversus thoracis, transversus thoracis;
  10. Clavipectoral triangle, trigonum clavipectorale;
  11. Pectoral triangle, trigonum pectorale;
  12. Subpectoral triangle, trigonum subpectorale;

 

MUSCLES AND TOPOGRAPHY OF ABDOMEN

  1. Rectus abdominis, rectus abdominis;
  2. Pyramidalis, pyramidalis;
  3. External oblique muscle of abdomen, obliquus externus abdominis;
  4. Internal oblique muscle of abdomen, obliquus internus abdominis;
  5. Transversus abdominis, transversus abdominis;
  6. Quadratus lumborum, quadratus lumborum;
  7. Superficial inguinal ring, anulus inguinalis superficialis;
  8. Deep inguinal ring, anulus inguinalis profundus;
  9. Linea alba, linea alba;
  10. Umbilical ring, anulus ubbilicalis;

 

          Diaphragm

  1. Central tendon, centrum tendineum;
  2. Muscular part;
  3. Sternal part of the diaphragm, pars sternalis diaphragmae;
  4. Costal part of the diaphragm, pars costalis diaphragmae;
  5. Lumbar part of the diaphragm, pars lumbalis diaphragmae;
  6. Medial crus, crus mediale;
  7. Intermediate crus, crus intermedium;
  8. Lateral crus, crus laterale;
  9. Median arcuate ligament, ligamentum arcuatum medianum;
  10. Medial arcuate ligament, ligamentum arcuatum mediale;
  11. Lateral arcuate ligament, ligamentum arcuatum laterale;
  12. Aortic hiatus, hiatus aorticus,
  13. Oesophageal hiatus, hiatus oesophageus;
  14. Caval opening, foramen venae cavae;
  15. Sternocostal triangle, trigonum sternocostale;
  16. Lumbocostal triangle, trigonum lumbocostale

 

            MUSCLES AND TOPOGRAPHY OF NECK

  1. Platysma, platysma;
  2. Sternoclieidomastoid, sternocleidomastoideus;
  3. Omohyoid, omohyoideus;
  4. Sternohyoid, sternohyoideus;
  5. Strenothyroid, sternothyroideus;
  6. Thyrohyoid, thyrohyoideus;
  7. Genioglossus, genioglossus;
  8. Hyoglossus, hyoglossus;
  9. Styloglossus, styloglossus;
  10. Stylopharyngeus, stylopharyngeus;
  11. Digastric, digastricus;
  12. Stylohyoid, stylohyoideus;
  13. Mylohyoid, mylohyoideus;
  14. Geniohyoid, geniohyoideus;
  15. Anterior scalene, scaleni anterior;
  16. Middle scalene, scalenus medius;
  17. Posterior scalene, scalenus posterior;
  18. Longus colli, longus colli;
  19. Longus captis, longus capitis;
  20. Rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis anterior;
  21. Rectus capitis lateralis, rectus capitis lateralis;
  22. Rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior major;
  23. Rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior minor;
  24. Obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis superior;
  25. Obliquus capitis inferior, obliquus capitis inferior;
  26. Anterior region of neck, regio cervicalis anterior;
  27. Sternocleidomastoid region of neck, regio sternocleidomstoidea
  28. Lateral region of neck, regio cervicalis lateralis;
  29. Posterior region of neck, regio cervicalis posterior;
  30. Omohyoid (carotid) triangle,trigonum omohyoideum (trigonum caroticum);
  31. Omotracheal triangle,trigonum omotracheale;
  32. Submandibular triangle,trigonum submandibulare;
  33. Retromandibular fossa,fossa retromandibularis;
  34. Interscalenus space, spatium interscalenum;
  35. Omotrapezoid triangle, trigonum omotrapezoideum
  36. Omoclavicular triangle, trigonum omoclaviculare

MUSCLES OF HEAD

  1. Epicranius, epicranius:
    • occipitofrontalis, m. occipitofrontalis;
    • temporoparietalis, m. temporoparietalis;
  2. Auricularis anterior, superior and posterior, auriculares anterior, superior et posterior:
  3. Corrugator supercilii, corrugator supercilii;
  4. Procerus, procerus;
  5. Orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oculi:
    • lacrimal part, pars lacrimalis;
    • palpebral part, pars palpebralis;
    • orbital part, pars orbitalis
  6. Nasalis, nasalis:
    • transverse part, pars transversa;
    • alar part, pars alaris ( depressor alae nasi);
  7. Orbicularis oris, orbicularis oris, consists of two parts: labial and marginal.
    • labial part, pars labialis;
    • marginal part, pars marginalis;
  8. Levator labii superioris, levator labii superioris;
  9. Zygomaticus major and minor, zygomaticus major et minor;
  10. Risorius, risorius;
  11. Depressor anguli oris, depressor anguli oris;
  12. Levator anguli oris, levator anguli oris (m. caninus);
  13. Depressor labii inferioris, depressor labii inferioris;
  14. Mentalis, mentalis;
  15. Buccinator, buccinator;
  16. Masseter, masseter;
  17. Temporalis, temporalis;
  18. Lateral pterygoid, pterygoideus lateralis;
  19. Medial pterygoid, pterygoideus medialis.

 

MUSCLES OF SHOULDER AND ARM

  1. Deltoid, deltoideus;
  2. Supraspinatus, supraspinatus;
  3. Inraspinatus, infraspinatus;
  4. Teres minor, teres minor;
  5. Teres major, teres major;
  6. Subscapularis, subscapularis;
  7. Biceps brachii, biceps brachii;
  8. Coracobrachialis, coracobrachialis;
  9. Brachialis, brachialis;
  10. Triceps brachii, triceps brachii;
  11. Anconeus, anconeus;

 

MUSCLES OF FOREARM

  1. Brachioradialis, brachioradialis;
  2. Pronator teres, pronator teres;
  3. Flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi radialis;
  4. Palmaris longus, palmaris longus;
  5. Flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum superficialis;
  6. Flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi ulnaris;
  7. Flexor pollicis longus, flexor pollicis longus;
  8. Flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum profundus;
  9. Pronator quadratus, pronator quadratus;
  10. Extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis longus;
  11. Extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis brevis;
  12. Extensor digitorum, extensor digitorum;
  13. Extensor digiti mimimi, extensor digiti minimi;
  14. Extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi ulnaris;
  15. Supinator, supinator;
  16. Abductor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus;
  17. Extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis brevis;
  18. Extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus;
  19. Extensor indicis, extensor indicis;

 

MUSCLES OF HAND

  1. Abductor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis;
  2. Flexor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis;
  3. Opponens pollicis, opponens polliсis;
  4. Adductor pollicis, adductor pollicis;
  5. Palmaris brevis, palmaris brevis;
  6. Abductor digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi;
  7. Flexor digiti minimi brevis, flexor digiti minimi brevis;
  8. Opponens digiti minimi, opponens digiti minimi;
  9. Lumbricales, lumbricales;
  10. Palmar interossei, interossei palmares;
  11. Dorsal interossei, interossei dorsales;
  12. Palmar aponeurosis, aponeurosis palmaris

 

TOPOGRAPHY OF UPPER LIMB

  1. Axillary fossa, fossa axillaris;
  2. Axillary cavity, cavitas axillaris;
  3. Triangular space, foramen trilaterum;
  4. Quadrangular space, foramen quadrilaterum;
  5. Clavipectoral triangle, trigonum clavipectorale;
  6. Pectoral triangle, trigonum pectorale;
  7. Subpectoral triangle, trigonum subpectorale.
  8. Medial bicipital groove, sulcus bicipitalis medialis;
  9. Lateral bicipital groove, sulcus bicipitalis lateralis;
  10. Cubital fossa, fossa cubitalis;
  11. Sulcus cubitalis anterior medialis;

 

  1. Sulcus cubitalis anterior lateralis;
  2. Sulcus cubitalis posterior medialis;
  3. Sulcus cubitalis posterior lateralis;
  4. Radial groove, sulcus radialis;
  5. Median groove, sulcus medianus;
  6. Ulnar groove, sulcus ulnaris;
  7. Flexor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum flexorum;
  8. Extensor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum extensorum;

PELVIC MUSCLES

  1. Iliopsoas, iliopsoas;
  2. Psoas major, psoas major;
  3. Iliacus, iliacus;
  4. Psoas minor, psoas minor;
  5. Piriformis, piriformis;
  6. Obturator internus, obturatorius internus;
  7. Gluteus maximus, gluteus maximus;
  8. Gluteus medius, gluteus medius;
  9. Gluteus minimus, gluteus minimus;
  10. Superior gemellus, gemellus superior;
  11. Inferior gemellus, gemellus inferior;
  12. Quadratus femoris, quadratus femoris;
  13. Obturator externus, obturatorius externus;
  14. Tensor fasciae latae, tensor fasciae latae;

 

MUSCLES OF THIGH

  1. Sartorius, sartorius;
  2. Quadriceps femoris, quadriceps femoris;
  3. Rectus femoris, rectus femoris;
  4. Vastus lateralis, vastus lateralis;
  5. Vastus intermedius, vastus intermedius;
  6. Vastus medialis, vastus medialis;
  7. Gracilis, gracilis;
  8. Pectineus, pectineus;
  9. Adductor longus, adductor longus;
  10. Adductor brevis, adductor brevis;
  11. Adductor magnus, adductor magnus;
  12. Biceps femoris, biceps femoris;
  13. Semitendinosus, semitendinosus;
  14. Semimembranosus, semimembranosus;

 

MUSCLES OF LEG

  1. Tibialis anterior, tibialis anterior;
  2. Extensor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus;
  3. Extensor hallucis longus, extensor hallucis longus;
  4. Peroneus longus, peroneus longus;
  5. Peroneus brevis, peroneus brevis;
  6. Triceps surae, triceps surae;
  7. Gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius;
  8. Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon, tendo calcaneus seu Achillis;
  9. Soleus, soleus;
  10. Plantaris, plantaris;
  11. Popliteus, popliteus;
  12. Flexor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum longus;
  13. Tibialis posterior, tibialis posterior;
  14. Flexor hallucis longus, flexor hallucis longus;

 

MUSCLES OF FOOT

  1. Extensor digitorum brevis, extensor digitorum brevis;
  2. Extensor hallucis brevis, extensor hallucis brevis;
  3. Abductor hallucis, abductor hallucis;
  4. Flexor hallucis brevis, flexor hallucis brevis;
  5. Adductor hallucis, adductor hallucis;.
  6. Flexor digitorum brevis, flexor digitorum brevis;
  7. Quadratus plantae, quadratus plantae;
  8. Lumbricales, lumbricales;
  9. Interossei plantares, interossei plantares;
  10. Interossei dorsales, interossei dorsales;
  11. Abductor digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi;
  12. Flexor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis;

 

TOPOGRAPHY OF LOWER LIMB

  1. Superior extensor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum extensorum superius;
  2. Inferior extensor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum extensorum inferius;
  3. Flexor retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum flexorum;
  4. Superior peroneal retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum peroneorum superius;
  5. Inferior peroneal retinaculum, retinaculum musculorum peroneorum inferius;
  6. Suprapiriform foramen, foramen suprapiriforme;
  7. Infrapiriform foramen, foramen infrapiriforme;

 

  1. Obturator canal, canalis obturatorius;
  2. Muscular space, lacuna musculorum;
  3. Vascular space, lacuna vasorum;
  4. Femoral triangle, trigonum femorale;
  5. Iliopectineal groove, sulcus iliopectineus;
  6. Anterior femoral groove, sulcus femoralis anterior;
  7. Femoropopliteal (adductor) canal, canalis femoropopliteus;
  8. Popliteal fossa, fossa popliteal;
  9. Cruropliteal canal, canalis cruropopliteus;
  10. Medial planatar groove, sulcus plantaris medialis;
  11. Lateral plantar groove, sulcus plantaris lateralis;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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