Questions what you should know4

  1. The structure of the oral cavity: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, soft palate.
  2. The structure of the pharynx and oesophagus.
  3. The structure of the stomach and duodenum.
  4. The structure of small and large intestine.
  5. The structure of liver, pancreas and spleen.
  6. The structure of peritoneum.
  7. Major Digestive system.
  8. The structure of the nasal cavity, larynx and trachea.
  9. The structure of lungs, pleura and mediastinum.
  10. The structure of the heart chambers.
  11. The cardiac conduction system. Topography of the heart. Structure of the pericardium.  Cardiac arteries and veins. 
  12. The structure of the kidney, ureter and urinary bladder.
  13. Male reproductive system.
  14. Female reproductive system. 
  15. Perineum.
  16. Major Internal Organs.
  17. Endorine system

1.The structure of the oral cavity: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, soft palate.

     Importance:

     The oral cavity is the commencement of the digestive tract. However, it  not only receives food, its functions are various:

a) Mechanical processing of food. Due to teeth and masticatory act, food bolus is exposed to machining; food particles are crushed.

b) Function of digestion:

     In the oral cavity the first stage of digestion occurs, because the saliva contains the enzyme ptyalin. Ptyalin splits polysaccharides into disaccharides.

c) Respiratory function:

     The oral cavity participates in breathing after physical activity or with difficulty breathing through the nose.

d) Function of speech.

e) Function of gustatory analyzer.

     The presence of taste receptors is the specific feature of the oral cavity. If tissues and organs of the oral cavity are damaged, this function is impaired completely.

     If the innervation of the soft palate is disturbed, paralysis of the soft palate muscles occurs. It is very dangerous because in this case food mass passes into the nasal cavity thus, it is important for doctors to know the structure of the soft palate.

     

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure of the maxilla and mandible.
  2. The location and action of the suprahyoid cervical muscles.
  3. The topography of the neck: triangles, fasciae, interaponeurotic spaces.

      Questions (see Digestive system textbook; Digestive system lecture; General data of digestive system):

  1. Name digestive organs sequentially starting from the oral cavity.
  2.  Describe the parts and structure (layers) of the lips and cheeks.
  3. Define the oral vestibule.
  4. How are the walls of the oral cavity proper formed?
  5. What opening is on the back side of the oral cavity proper? Where does it lead? Describe its bordes.
  6. Which bones form the hard palate?
  7. Describe the structure of the soft palate. Name the muscles of the soft palate, their attachment and action.
  8. What muscles depress the soft palate; which muscles elevate the soft palate? Which muscle acts on the soft palate and on the tongue (pharynx)? Which of the palatine muscles originate from the auditory tube and what is the practical importance of such an attachment?
  9. Describe the structure of the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches.
  10. Describe the location of the palatine tonsils. What is the function of the palatine tonsils?
  11. Give the characteristic of the oral mucosa.
  12. Name and classify the salivary glands. Describe the location of the major salivary glands.
  13. Where do the ducts of the major salivary glands open?
  14. Which of the salivary gland are serous (mucous, mixed)? Which of them are alveolar (tubulo-alveolar)?
  15. Describe the components of the saliva and its function.
  16. Describe the structure of a tooth.How is a tooth fixed to the jaw bone? What is periodontium and parodontium?
  17. Write the formula of the constant and milk teeth. What is the difference between milk and constant teeth in number, structure and types?
  18. Describe the surfaces of the crown.
  19. Describe the distinctive features of the incisors, canine, premolars and molars.
  20. Describe the distinctive features of the milk teeth.
  21. Describe the time of the dental eruption (milk and constant).
  22. Describe the external structure of the tongue (its parts, grooves, papillae).
  23. Describe the function of the lingual papillae.
  24. Where is the lingual tonsil located? What is its function?
  25. Describe the muscles of the tongue (name, attachment, action of each muscle). What muscles change the shape of the tongue? What muscles change the position of the tongue? Which muscles move the tongue forward (backward, up, down, to the sides)?
  26. What is the function of the lingual and labial frenula? What is the function of the sublingual fold and caruncle?

      Practice:

  1. Oral vestibule (vestibulum oris)
  2. Proper oral cavity (cavitas oris proprium)
  3. Hard palate (palatum durum)
  4. Soft palate (palatum molle)
  5. Uvula (uvula)
  6. Palatoglossal arch (arcus palatoglossus)
  7. Palatopharyngeal arch (arcus palatopharyngeus)
  8. Tonsilar fossa (fossa tonsillaris)
  9. Palatine tonsil (tonsilla palatina)
  10. Fauces (fauces)
  11. Root of tongue (radix linguae)
  12. Apex of tongue (apex linguae)
  13. Body of tongue (corpus linguae)
  14. Terminal sulcus of the tongue (sulcus terminalis linguae)
  15. Median sulcus of the tongue (sulcus medianus linguae)
  16. Foramen caecum (foramen caecum)
  17. Frenulum of tongue (frenulum linguae)
  18. Filiform papillae (papillae filiformes)
  19. Fungiform papillae (papillae fungiformes)
  20. Vallate papillae (papillae vallatae)
  21. Foliate papillae (papillae foliatae)
  22. Papillae conicae (conical papillae)
  23. Lingual tonsil (tonsilla lingualis)
  24. Glossoepiglottic folds (median and laterals)
  25. Epiglottic valleculae (valleculae epigloticae)
  26. Submandibular gland (glandula submandibularis)
  27. Parotid gland (glandula parotidea)
  28. Sublingual gland (glandula sublingualis)
  29. Sublingual caruncle (caruncula sublingualis)
  30. Sublingual fold (plica sublingualis)
  31. Root of tooth (radix dentis)
  32. Crown of tooth (corona dentis)
  33. Neck of tooth (cervix dentis)
  34. Incisor teeth (dentes incisivi)
  35. Canine teeth (dentes canini)
  36. Premolar teeth (dentes premolares)
  37. Molar teeth (dentes molares)
  38. Enamel (enamelum)
  39. Dentin (dentinum)
  40. Pulp (pulpa)
  41. Pulp cavity (cavitas pulparis)
  42. Apical foramen (foramen apicis dentis)
  43. Root canal (canalis radicis dentis)
  44. Periodontal ligament (periodontum)
  45. Parodontium (parodontium)

To see videomaterials about the topic click here Videomaterials

2. The structure of the pharynx and oesophagus.

Importance:

      The accumulations of lymphoid tissue in the pharynx can be inflamed (angina is an acute inflammation of the palatine tonsils; tonsillitis is a chronic inflammation of the palatine tonsils; adenoiditis is the increase and inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsil). If conservative treatment of tonsils is unsuccessful, the otolaryngologist has to make operation.

     It is important to know the anatomy of the oesophageal constrictions: here the foreign bodies may be held. Also in case acidic and alkaline burn in esophagus, here the obstructions can occur.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The location of the pharyngeal tubercle; musculotubal canal in the temporal bone`s pyramid.
  2. The structure of the mediastinum.
  3. The location of the oesophageal hiatus and aortic hiatus in the diaphragm.
  4. The position and relations of the internal organs in the neck; the cervical fascial spaces.

Questions (see Digestive system textbook; Digestive system lecture; General data of digestive system):

  1. Describe the skeletotopy of the pharynx: where does it start (relatively to the skull) and end (relatively to the vertebral column)?
  2. What parts of the pharynx are distinguished?
  3. Describe the location of the nasopharynx. Why this part of the pharynx has such a name? Describe its walls. What epithelium covers it? What is the function of this part? What structure separates the nasopharynx from oropharynx? What organs open into the nasopharynx? What are the names of their openings?
  4. Where is the oropharynx located? Why it has such a name? What are its boundaries? What epithelium covers it? What is its function? Explain how the alimentary tract crosses the respiratory tract in the oropharynx. Where is the border between the nasopharynx and oropharynx?
  5. Where is the laryngopharynx located? Why it has such a name? Describe its walls. What epithelium covers it? What is its function? Describe its relations with other organs.
  6. Describe the location of the tonsils in the nasopharynx. What is their function? Where is the adenoid located? 
  7. What tonsils are included into the Pirogov`s ring?
  8. What is the salpingopharyngeal fold? What muscle does it contain?
  9. Describe the layers of the pharynx in sequence. How many muscular layers does it have? Which of them is inner (outer)? Describe the names of the pharyngeal mucles, their attachment and action.
  10. Describe the position of the pharyngeobasilar fascia. Describe its attachment to the base of the skull. How does it change near the oesophagus?
  11. What fascial spaces exist near the laryngopharynx? What is their practical importance?
  12. Describe the commencement and the end of the oesophagus. Describe the skeletotopy of the oesophagus. What is its total length? What is the length of the alimentary tract from the oral vestibule to the beginning of stomach?
  13. What parts of the oesophagus are distinguished according to their location?
  14. Describe the relations of each part of the oesophagus to other organs (especially to aorta and trachea).
  15. What nerves accompany the oesophagus and pass through the oesophageal hiatus of the diaphragm together with the oesophagus?
  16. Describe the layers of the oesophagus in sequence.
  17. Describe the mucosa of the oesophagus: type of the epithelium, folds, glands.
  18. How many muscular layers does the oesophagus have? Which of them is inner (outer)?
  19. What anatomical and physiological constrictions does the oesophagus have? What are the differences between them? Describe the skeletotopy of each constriction. What is their practical importance?

Practice:

  1. Nasopharynx (pars nasalis pharyngis);
  2. Oropharynx (pars oralis pharyngis);
  3. Laryngopharynx (pars laryngea pharyngis);
  4. Pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube (ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae);
  5. Torus tubarius (torus tubarius);
  6. The areas where the tubal and paryngeal tonsils are located;
  7. Pharyngeal fornix (fornix pharyngis);
  8. Pharyngeal recess (recessus pharyngeus);
  9. Salpingopharyngeal fold (plica salpingopharyngea);
  10. Epiglottic cartilage (cartilago epiglottica);
  11. Arythenoid cartilage (cartilago arythenoidea);
  12. Aryepiglottic folds (plicae aryepiglotticae);
  13. Laryngeal inlet (aditus laryngis);
  14. Piriform recess (recessus piriformis);
  15. Pharyngeal constriction;
  16. Bronchial constriction;
  17. Diaphragmatic constriction;
  18. Aortic constriction;
  19. Cardiac constriction;

To see video to prepare the topic click here Videomaterials

3. The structure of the stomach and duodenum.

      Importance:

      In clinical practice the abdominal diseases are observed more often then others. To make diagnosis a doctor examines the organs of abdominal cavity with the help of palpation through the anterior abdominal wall. For this purpose a doctor need to know the position of organs and their surface projection.

      The doctors should know anatomy and function of the abdominal organs, in particular, stomach and duodenum, to understand pathophysiology of their diseases and to find correct therapeutic or surgical treatment.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure (layers) of the abdominal walls: anterior, posterior, laterals, superior.
  2. The abdominal regions (see the diagram «Abdominal regions»).
  1. The topography of the abdominal part of the oesophagus.

     

Questions (see Digestive system textbook; Digestive system lecture; General data of digestive system):

  1. Describe the function and position of the stomach in the abdominal cavity and the place where the stomach projects onto the anterior abdominal wall.
  2. Describe the parts of the stomach: which of them is superior (inferior); how you can differentiate the anterior and posterior walls of the stomach, superior and inferior parts on the anatomical preparation of the stomach? What part of the stomach (superior or inferior) is the fundus? Describe the pyloric part in details.
  3. Describe the location of the pyloric valve and sphincter; of the cardiac sphincter. Explain their practical importance.
  4. Describe the skeletotopy of the stomach (relatively to the vertebral column and to the ribs) and skeletotopy of its parts: cardiac and pyloric orifices, fundus, greater and lesser curvatures. Describe the borders of the area where the stomach directly adjoins the anterior abdominal wall.
  5. Describe the relations of the stomach to the neighboring organs: what organs adjoin the stomach posteriorly, superiorly, inferiorly, from the right and left sides.
  6. Describe the layers of the gastric walls in sequence.
  7. Describe the features of the gastric mucosa: folds, gastric areas, gastric foveolae etc.
  8. Describe the types and localization of the gastric glands. How do they differ in function? What kinds of cells does each of these types of glands contain? What substances does each kind of the cells secrete?
  9. How is the stomach covered by the peritoneum? What ligaments connect the stomach to the surrounding organs?
  10. Describe the functions of the stomach. How long food can be situated in the stomach?
  11. Describe the shapes of the stomach depending on the constitutional features of people.
  12. Where does the duodenum begin? What is the length of the duodenum?
  13. What parts of the duodenum are distinguished? What is the bulb (ampulla) of duodenum?
  14. Describe the skeletotopy of the each part of the duodenum.
  15. Describe the syntopy of each part of the duodenum.
  16. Describe the layers of the duodenum`s wall in sequence.
  17. Describe the features of the duodenal mucosa: types of its folds, glands. Describe the localization of the longitudinal fold of duodenum.
  18. Describe the localization of the major and minor duodenal papillae. What ducts open on their tops?
  19. What is the common bile duct, how is it formed?
  20. What is the hepatopancreatic ampulla, how is it formed?
  21. Describe the sphincters of the biliary system.
  22. How are different parts of the duodenum covered by the peritoneum? What is the hidden part of the duodenum?
  23. What is the duodenojejunal flexure? Describe its skeletotopy and practical importance.
  24. Describe the function of the duodenum.

Practice:

  1. Posterior wall of stomach (paries posterior)
  2. Anterior wall of stomach (paries anterior)
  3. Lesser curvature (curvatura minor)
  4. Greater curvature (curvatura major)
  5. Pyloric part (pars pylorica)
  6. Pyloric antrum (antrum pyloricum)
  7. Pyloric canal (canalis pyloricus)
  8. Pyloric sphincter (musculus sphincter pyloricus)
  9. Pyloric valve (valvula pylorica)
  10. Fundus of stomach (fundus gastricus)
  11. Body of stomach (corpus gastricus)
  12. Cardiac part (pars cardiaca)
  13. Cardiac orifice (ostium cardiacum)
  14. Angular notch (incisura angularis)
  15. Cardiac notch (incisura cardiaca)
  16. Gastric areas (areae gastricae)
  17. Gastric folds (plicae gastricae)
  18. Longitudinal fold of the stomach/gastric path
  19. Ampulla (bulb) of the duodenum (ampulla duodeni)
  20. Superior duodenal flexure (flexura duodeni superior)
  21. Inferior duodenal flexure (flexura duodeni inferior)
  22. Superior, descending, horizontal and ascending parts of the duodenum
  23. Duodenojejunal flexure (flexura duodenojejunalis)
  24. Circular folds of duodenum (plicae circulares duodeni)
  25. Longitudinal fold of duodenum (plica longitudinalis duodeni)
  26. Major and minor papillae of duodenum (papilla duodeni major and minor)

X-rays practice:

  1. Lesser curvature (curvatura minor)
  2. Greater curvature (curvatura major)
  3. Pyloric part (pars pylorica)
  4. Pyloric antrum (antrum pyloricum)
  5. Pyloric canal (canalis pyloricus)
  6. Pyloric sphincter (musculus sphincter pyloricus)
  7. Fundus of stomach (fundus gastricus)
  8. Body of stomach (corpus gastricus)
  9. Cardiac part (pars cardiaca)
  10. Angular notch (incisura angularis)
  11. Cardiac notch (incisura cardiaca)
  12. Ampulla (bulb) of the duodenum (ampulla duodeni)
  13. Superior, descending, horizontal and ascending parts of the duodenum
  14. Shapes of the stomach: hook, elongated hook and horn-shaped.

To see video about the topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagram for the topic click here Borders of stomach

4.The structure of small and large intestine.

 Importance:

       To know the anatomy of the intestine is important for doctors of all specialties. In the small intestine the following processes take place: chemical food processing in alkaline medium; absorption of nutrients, which are produced by the wall and cavity phases of nutrition; passage of chyme due to peristaltic and antiperistaltic movements; neutralization of microbes by the lymphoid formations; secretion of mucus which protects the intestinal mucosa and facilitates the passage of chyme.

       The large intestine actively participates in water absorption; the fecal masses and the harmful substances (indole, skatole and so on) are formed in the large intestine. The large intestine provides evacuation of the fecal masses, protects the body from bacterias with the help of lymphoid formations. Enzyme of its goblet cells retards the development of the bacterial intestinal microflora.

To treat the dyspeptic disorders, infectious diseases (dysentery, typhoid), volvulus, hernia, thrombosis and embolism of the mesenteric vessels, wounding of the gut, to make plastic surgery, it is necessary to know the anatomy and topography of the small and large intestine.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure (layers) of the abdominal walls: anterior, posterior, laterals, superior.
  2. The abdominal regions (see the diagram «Abdominal regions»)

     

Questions (see Digestive system textbook; Digestive system lecture; General data of digestive system):

  1. Name the parts of the small and large intestine in sequence beginning from the stomach. What is the length of the small and large intestine?
  2. Describe the surface projection of the jejunum and ileum.
  3. Describe the position of the jejunum and ileum in the abdominal cavity. Where is the beginning of the jejunum, where is the jejunum continuous with the ileum, where is the end of the ileum?
  4. Describe the syntopy of the small intestine.
  5. Describe the layers of the wall of the jejunum and ileum in order. How many muscular layers do they have? Describe the types and function of these muscles.
  6. Describe the features of the jejunal and ileal mucosa.
  7. Describe the function of the small intestine.
  8. Describe the differences between the jejunum and ileum in external and internal structure (see the table «The differences between the jejunum and ileum»). 
  9. Describe the relations of the peritoneum to the small intestine.
  10. Describe the beginning of each part of the large intestine.
  11. Where is the caecum located? What is the length of the caecum?
  12. Describe the surface projection of the caecum and vermiform process.
  13. Describe the variants of the positions of the vermiform appendix (see «Appendix and Meckel`s diverticulum).
  14. Describe the place where the ileum opens into the caecum (externally and internally): ileocaecal angle, orifice, valve and so on
  15. What is the right and left colic flexures?
  16. Describe the surface projection of the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending and sigmoid colon. 
  17. Describe the level of the beginning and end of the sigmoid colon.
  18. Describe the location of the rectum.
  19. Describe the relation of the large intestine`s different parts to surrounding organs and to the peritoneum.
  20. Describe the layers of the large intestine`s wall in order. How many muscular layers does it have? Describe the types and function of these muscles.
  21. Describe the features of the large intestine mucosa.
  22. Describe the function of the large intestine.
  23. Describe the features of the large intestine relatively to the small intestine in the structure and in the function. Describe the external and internal differences between the small and large intestine (see the table «The differences between the large and small intestine»). 
  24. What is the function of the epiploic appendices? How are the taeniae and haustrae formed?
  25. What types of taeniae do you know? Describe their localization in different parts of the large intestine.
  26. Describe the features of the rectum, its parts. What features does its mucosa have? Describe the sphincters of the rectum: location, features of functioning. Where is the hemorroidal zone of the rectum? Give the definition of it and explain its practical importance.

Practice:

  1. Jejunum (jejunum)
  2. Ileum (ileum)
  3. Ileocaecal angle (angulus ileocaecalis)
  4. Caecum (caecum)
  5. Ascending colon (colon ascendens)
  6. Transverse colon (colon transversum)
  7. Descending colon (colon descendens)
  8. Sigmoid colon (colon sigmoideum)
  9. Rectum (rectum)
  10. Vermiform process (appendix vermiformis)
  11. Haustrae coli (haustrae coli)
  12. Epiploic appendices (appendices epiploicae)
  13. Taeniae coli (libera, omentalis, mesenterica)
  14. Right colic flexure (flexura colica dextra)
  15. Left colic flexure (flexura colica sinistra)

X-rays skills:

  1. Caecum
  2. Ascending colon (colon ascendens)
  3. Transverse colon (colon transversum)
  4. Descending colon (colon descendens)
  5. Sigmoid colon (colon sigmoideum)
  6. Rectum
  7. Vermiform process (appendix vermiformis)
  8. Right colic flexure (flexura colica dextra)
  9. Left colic flexure (flexura colica sinistra)

To see videomaterials about the topic click here Videomaterials

5. The structure of liver, pancreas and spleen.

      Importance:

      The liver, pancreas and spleen are very important organs.  The functions of the liver are various. One of the most important functions is neutralization of harmful substances. Also the liver participates in the carbohydrate metabolism. It supports the glucose concentration in the blood. The liver participates in all kinds of metabolism including the synthesis of important blood plasma proteins. The liver plays an important role in cholesterol and vitamin metabolism. Vitamins A, D, K, B2 and nicotinic acid are deposited in the liver. The liver participates in fat metabolism. The bile in the intestine emulsifies fats and provides absorption products of their splitting into blood and lymph; it stimulates the peristaltic movements of the intestine. The diseases of the liver compose the great part of the abdominal pathology (hepatitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, cirrhosis etc).

      The pancreas is the second largest gland in the digestive tract after the liver. It secretes the pancreatic juice which is necessary for digestion. The pancreatic juice passes into the duodenum. The pancreas also secretes hormone insulin which lowers the glucose level in blood. The disorder of the insulin production leads to serious disease, the pancreatic diabetes. Because of the its diseases (pancreatitis, malignant tumor etc), the pancreas is the object of therapeutic and surgical interventions.

      In the embryonic period of development the spleen is a hemopoietic organ producing lymphocytes. Lymphopoiesis is associated with the ability of the spleen to produce the immune bodies. The ability of the splenic endothelium and reticular cells to phagocytize foreign particles and microorganisms helps to protect the body from infection. A large amount of blood  is deposited in the spleen. Operations on a spleen are frequent in abdominal surgery.

      Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure (layers) of the abdominal walls: anterior, posterior, laterals, superior.
  2. The abdominal regions (see the diagram «Abdominal regions»)
  3. The topographical lines of the thorax.

    Questions (see Digestive system textbook; Digestive system lecture; General data of digestive system):

  1. Describe the position of the liver in the abdominal cavity and its surface projection.
  2. Describe the surfaces and borders of the liver. 
  3. How to find the anterior and posterior sides of the liver on the anatomical preparation?
  4. Describe the skeletotopy of the liver (relatively to the vertebral column and to the ribs), the projection of its borders to the anterior and posterior sides of the body using the topographical lines of the thorax.
  5. Describe the relations of the liver to the peritoneum and to the neighboring organs: what organs adjoin the liver posteriorly, superiorly, inferiorly, from the right and left sides. What ligaments connect the liver to other organs?
  6. Describe the lobes of the liver. What fissures (grooves) separate them?
  7. What is the porta hepatis? What does it transmits? Describe the position and relations of the structures which enter and leave the liver through the porta hepatis.
  8. Where is the gallbladder located?
  9. Describe the position of the ligamenta teres and venosum. What fetal vessels transform into these ligaments after birth?
  10. Describe the relations between the liver and inferior vena cava.
  11. Describe the position of the coronary, falciform, triangular ligaments of the liver.
  12. What is the Glisson`s capsule?
  13. Describe the functions of the liver.
  14. Describe the subdivisions of the liver: lobes, sectors, segments, lobules, and relations between them. What is the practical importance of the liver segmentation (see the presentation)?
  15. Describe the subdivisions (orders) of the hepatic artery and portal vein. How the branching of the vessels relate to subdivisions of the liver?
  16. Define the segment of the liver. How many segments are distinguished anatomically and clinically?
  17. Describe the structural and functional units of the liver: hepatic lobule, portal lobule, hepatic acinus.
  18. Describe the structure of the hepatic lobule. What is its shape, size? Around which vessel are the hepatocytes grouped?
  19. Describe the components of the hepatic triad.
  20. Describe the flow of the blood to the liver and from the liver. Why does the liver receive two types of the blood? Describe the blood supply of the liver, beginning from the hepatic artery. How does the deoxygenated blood flow from the liver into the inferior vena cava?
  21. What is the rete mirabile of the liver?
  22. What is the function of the bile? Where is the bile formed? Describe all the bile ducts in order, beginning from beliferous ductules.
  23. What parts does the gallbladder have? Describe its function, relation to the peritoneum and adjacent viscera and its surface projection and skeletotopy. What duct originates from the gallbladder?
  24. Describe the formation of the common bile duct. Where does it open? Describe the biliary sphincters.
  25. Describe the position of the pancreas in the abdominal cavity and its surface projection.
  26. Describe the parts of the pancreas.
  27. Describe the relations of the pancreas to the surrounding organs and to the peritoneum.
  28. Describe the skeletotopy of the pancreas relatively to the vertebral column.
  29. Describe the borders and surfaces of the pancreas.
  30. How do the ducts of the pancreas open into the duodenum?
  31. Describe the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas.
  32. Describe the position of the spleen in the abdominal cavity and its surface projection. 
  33. Describe the relations of the spleen to the surrounding organs.
  34. Describe the ligaments between the spleen and surrounding organs.
  35. Describe the skeletotopy of the spleen relatively to the ribs.
  36. Describe the surfaces, poles and borders of the spleen.
  37. What is the hilum of the spleen? What structures enter the spleen and leave it via the hilum?
  38. Describe the internal structure of the spleen: red and white pulp.
  39. Describe the function of the spleen.

Practice:

  1. Diaphragmatic surface of the liver (facies diaphragmatica)
  2. Visceral surface of the liver (facies visceralis)
  3. Right lobe of the liver (lobus dexter)
  4. Left lobe of the liver (lobus sinister)
  5. Falciform ligament (ligamentum falciforme)
  6. Coronary ligament (ligamentum coronarium hepatis)
  7. Triangular ligaments (right and left) (ligamentum triangulare (dextrum/ sinistrum))
  8. Right and left longitudinal grooves (sulcus longitudinalis dexter et sinister)
  9. Fissure for ligamentum venosum (fissura ligamenti venosi)
  10. Fissure for ligamentum teres (fissura ligamenti teretis)
  11. Fossa for gall bladder (fossa vesicae biliaris)
  12. Vesical notch (incisura vesicalis)
  13. Notch for the ligamentum teres (incisura ligamenti teretis)
  14. Ligamentum teres (ligamentum teres hepatis)
  15. Ligamentum venosum (ligamentum venosum)
  16. Gallbladder (vesica fellea): fundus, body, neck
  1. Cystic duct (ductus cysticus)
  2. Fundus of the gall bladder (fundus vesicae felleae)
  3. Bile duct (ductus choledochus)
  4. Common hepatic duct (ductus hepaticus communis)
  5. Quadrate lobe (lobus quadratus)
  6. Caudate lobe (lobus caudatus)
  7. Papillary process (processus papillaris)
  8. Caudate process (processus caudatus)
  9. Groove for the vena cava (sulcus venae cavae)
  10. Porta hepatis (porta hepatis)
  11. Portal vein (vena portae)
  12. Proper hepatic artery (arteria hepatica propria)
  13. Groove for the vena cava (sulcus venae cavae)
  14. Oesophageal impression (impressio oesophagealis);
  15. Gastric impression (impressio gastrica);
  16. Pyloric impression (impressio pylorica);
  17. Duodenal impression (impressio duodenalis);
  18. Colic impression (impressio colica);
  19. Renal impression (impressio renalis);
  20. Suprarenal impression (impressio suprarenalis);
  21. Head of the pancreas (caput pancreatis)
  22. Neck of the pancreas (collum pancreatici)
  23. Body of the pancreas (corpus pancreatis)
  24. Tail of the pancreas (cauda pancreatis)
  25. Uncinate process (processus uncinatus);
  26. Pancreatic surfaces: posterior, anterosuperior, anteroinferior
  27. Pancreatic borders: superior, anterior, inferior;
  28. Diaphragmatic surface of spleen (facies diaphragmatica);
  29. Visceral surface of spleen (facies visceralis);
  30. Hilum of spleen (hilum lienalis);
  31. Superior border of spleen (margo superior);
  32. Inferior border of spleen (margo inferior);
  33. Anterior extremity of spleen (extremitas anterior);
  34. Posterior extremity of spleen (extremitas posterior);
  35. Impressions on the spleen: colic, gastric, renal

To see video about the topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagram for the topic click here Borders of liver

 

6. The structure of peritoneum

       Importance:

       The functions of the peritoneum are of great importance; the peritonitis is one of the most serious diseases. That is why it is important to know the material of this topic. It is especially necessary in practice of surgeons, obstetrician-gynecologists and therapeutists because this knowledge allows them to understand symptoms of abdominal diseases (peritonitis, gastric ulcer etc) and to perform the medical manipulations (for example the puncture of the peritoneal cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix).

Before you start to study this topic you need to know:

  1. The structure (layers) of the abdominal walls: anterior, posterior, laterals, superior.
  2. Position of the abdominal organs.

   

    Questions (see Digestive system textbook; Digestive system lecture; General data of digestive system):

  1. Give the definition of the peritoneum. What layers of the peritoneum do you know? Describe the function of the parietal and visceral peritoneum. What is the normal volume of the peritoneal fluid?
  2. Give the definition of the abdominal and peritoneal cavities. What are the differences between them?
  3. Describe the derivatives of the peritoneum.
  4. Where are the retroperitoneal, anteperitoneal and subperitoneal spaces located? Describe their walls.
  5. What types of the organs relatively to the peritoneum are distinguished?
  6. What are the differences between extra-, meso- and intraperitoneal organs? Which of them have mesentery? Which of them are mobile? Name the organs which belong to each of these groups. Describe the specific relation of the ovaries to the peritoneum.
  7. What are the differences between the ligaments and mesentery? What types of the ligaments are distinguished?
  8. What is the root of the mesentery? Describe the position and attachment of the roots of the transverse mesocolon, jejunal and ileal mesentery, sigmoid mesocolon, mesorectum, mesoappendix.
  9. What is the omentum? Give the definition of the greater and lesser omentum. Describe their components, functions and location.
  10. Describe the umbilical folds of the anterior abdominal wall. Describe the content of each of these folds. What fossae are formed between these folds? Describe the relations of the fossae to the rings of the inguinal canal.
  11. What storeys are distinguished in the abdominal cavity? Describe their borders.
  12. Describe the upper storey: what organs, ligaments and bursae are located here?
  13. Describe the walls of the hepatic, omental and pregastric bursae. Describe the relations between them and their communications. Describe the borders of the epiploic foramen and omental vestibule.
  14. What is the clinical importance of the bursae and their communications?
  15. Describe the middle storey: what organs, mesenteries, ligaments, recesses, canals and sinuses are located here?
  16. Describe the borders of the right and left mesenteric sinuses. Describe their communications.
  17. Describe the borders of the right and left paracolic canals and their communications.
  18. What is the Treitz ligament? What is its clinical importance?
  19. Describe the borders of the superior and inferior duodenal recesses. What is their clinical importance?
  20. Describe the borders of the superior and inferior ileocaecal, and retrocaecal recesses. What is their clinical importance?
  21. Describe the borders of the intersigmoid recesses. What is its clinical importance?
  22. Describe the lower storey: what organs, folds, recesses are situated here?
  23. Describe the differences between the male and female inferior storey.
  24. Give the definition of the rectouterine and vesicouterine recesses, and of the rectovesical recess.

Written task:

Write in groups the extra-, meso- and intraperitoneal organs.

Practice:

  1. Upper storey of peritoneal cavity;
  2. Middle storey of peritoneal cavity;
  3. Lower storey of peritoneal cavity;
  4. Hepatic bursa (bursa hepatica);
  5. Pregastric bursa (bursa pregastrica);
  6. Epiploic foramen (foramen epiploicum);
  7. Omental bursa (bursa omentalis);
  8. Lesser omentum (omentum minus);
  9. Greater omentum (omentum majus);
  10. Transverse mesocolon (mesocolon transversus);
  11. Mesentery of the small intestine;
  12. Right mesenteric sinus (sinus mesentericus dexter);
  13. Left mesenteric sinus (sinus mesentericus sinister);
  14. Right paracolic canal (canalis paracolicus dexter);
  15. Left paracolic canal (canalis paracolicus sinister);
  16. Superior duodenal recess (recessus duodenalis superior);
  17. Inferior duodenal recess (recessus duodenalis inferior);
  18. Superior ileocaecal recess (recessus ileocaecalis superior);
  19. Inferior ileocaecal recess (recessus ileocaecalis inferior);
  20. Retrocaecal recess (recessus retrocaecalis);
  21. Intersigmoid recess (recessus intersigmoideus);
  22. Rectovesical recess (recessus rectovesicalis);
  23. Vesicouterine recess (recessus vesicouterina);
  24. Rectouterine recess (recessus rectouterina);
  25. Mesoappendix;
  26. Sigmoid mesocolon (mesocolon sigmoideum);
  27. Median umbilical fold (plica umbilicalis mediana);
  28. Medial umbilical fold (plica umbilicalis medialis);
  29. Lateral umbilical fold (plica umbilicalis lateralis);
  30. Supravesical fossa (fossa supravesicalis);
  31. Medial inguinal fossa (fossa inguinalis medialis);
  32. Lateral inguinal fossa (fossa inguinalis lateralis)

 To print the diagram for the topic click here Peritoneum

7. Major Digestive system

Questions for major Digestive System

  1. Describe the structure of a tooth; the dental formula (of milk and permanent teeth). The time of the dental eruption and change of milk teeth. Explain what is periodontium and parodontium. Explain, what is normal occlusion.
  1. Name and group the lingual muscles. Describe their actions. Describe the distribution of the taste sensation on the tongue and the function of the lingual papillae.
  1. Describe the salivary glands: classification, location; the places where the excretory ducts of the major glands open. Describe the function of saliva.
  1. Describe the structure and function of tonsils. What tonsils form the lymphoepithelial ring (of Pirogov&Waldeyer)? Describe their location.
  1. Name the muscles of the soft palate. Describe their attachment and action.
  1. Describe the pharynx: skeletotopy, syntopy, parts, function, structure of the wall, pharyngeal muscles, features of the mucosa.
  1. Describe the oesophagus: skeletotopy, syntopy, parts, function, structure of the wall, features of the mucosa; oesophageal constrictions.
  1. Describe the stomach: skeletotopy, syntopy, holotopy, parts, function, structure of the wall, features of the mucosa; relations to the peritoneum; the ligaments, connecting the stomach to the surrounding organs.
  1. Describe the small intestine: holotopy, parts, function, structure of the wall, features of the mucosa; relations to the peritoneum. Describe the duodenum: skeletotopy, syntopy, parts, features of the mucosa, relations to the peritoneum.
  1. Describe the small intestine: holotopy, parts, function, structure of the wall, features of the mucosa; relations to the peritoneum. Describe the differences between jejunum and ileum.
  2. Describe the large intestine: holotopy, parts, function, structure of the wall, features of the muscle layer and mucosa; relations to the peritoneum. Describe the differences between the small and large intestine.
  1. Describe the large intestine: holotopy, parts, function, structure of the wall, features of the muscle layer and mucosa; relations to the peritoneum. Describe the rectum: parts, syntopy, features of the muscle layer and mucosa, sphincters.
  1. Describe the liver: skeletotopy, syntopy, holotopy, function, relation to the peritoneum, biliary system (the formation of the hepatic ducts, common bile duct, sphincters).
  1. Describe the liver: skeletotopy, syntopy, holotopy, function, relation to the peritoneum; microscopic structure of liver (hepatic lobule, acinus, portal lobule).
  1. Describe the gall bladder: skeletotopy, syntopy, holotopy, function, relation to the peritoneum.
  1. Describe the pancreas: skeletotopy, syntopy, holotopy, relation to the peritoneum, pancreatic ducts.
  1. Give the definition of the peritoneum (parietal and visceral). Give the definition of the abdominal cavity and peritoneal cavity. What are the retroperitoneal, antepritoneal, subperitoneal spaces?
  1. Describe the storeys of the peritoneal cavity: names, limits, contained organs. Describe the upper storey of the peritoneal cavity: ligaments, bursae.
  1. Describe the storeys of the peritoneal cavity: names, limits, contained organs. Describe the middle storey of the peritoneal cavity: sinuses, canals.
  1. Describe the storeys of the peritoneal cavity: names, limits, contained organs. Describe the lower storey of the peritoneal cavity in males and females.
  1. Describe the folds and fossae of the inner surface of the anterior abdominal wall. What structures are contained in the folds? What are the relations between the fossae and the inguinal canal?
  1. Describe the omenta: what is the lesser omentum? Describe the structure and function of the greater omentum.

Practice:

  1. Hard palate (palatum durum)
  2. Soft palate (palatum molle)
  3. Sublingual caruncle (caruncula sublingualis)
  4. Sublingual fold (plica sublingualis)
  5. Palatoglossal arch (arcus palatoglossus)
  6. Palatopharyngeal arch (arcus palatopharyngeus)
  7. Tonsilar fossa (fossa tonsillaris)
  8. Palatine tonsil (tonsilla palatina)
  9. Fauces (fauces)
  10. Oral vestibule (vestibulum oris)
  11. Proper oral cavity (cavitas oris proprium)
  12. Root of tongue (radix linguae)
  13. Apex of tongue (apex linguae)
  14. Body of tongue (corpus linguae)
  15. Terminal sulcus of the tongue (sulcus terminalis linguae)
  16. Median sulcus of the tongue (sulcus medianus linguae)
  17. Foramen caecum (foramen caecum)
  18. Frenulum of tongue (frenulum linguae)
  19. Filiform papillae (papillae filiformes)
  20. Fungiform papillae (papillae fungiformes)
  21. Vallate papillae (papillae vallatae)
  22. Foliate papillae (papillae foliatae)
  23. Papillae conicae (conical papillae)
  24. Lingual tonsil (tonsilla lingualis)
  25. Submandibular gland (glandula submandibularis)
  26. Parotid gland (glandula parotidea)
  27. Sublingual gland (glandula sublingualis)
  28. Glossoepiglottic folds (median and laterals)
  29. Epiglottic valleculae (valleculae epigloticae)
  30. Uvula (uvula)
  31. Root of tooth (radix dentis)
  32. Crown of tooth (corona dentis)
  33. Neck of tooth (cervix dentis)
  34. Incisor teeth (dentes incisivi)
  35. Canine teeth (dentes canini)
  36. Premolar teeth (dentes premolares)
  37. Molar teeth (dentes molares)
  38. Enamel (enamelum)
  39. Dentin (dentinum)
  40. Pulp (pulpa)
  41. Pulp cavity (cavitas pulparis)
  42. Apical foramen (foramen apicis dentis)
  43. Root canal (canalis radicis dentis)
  44. Periodontal ligament (periodontum)
  45. Parodontium (parodontium);
  46. Nasopharynx (pars nasalis pharyngis);
  47. Oropharynx (pars oralis pharyngis);
  48. Laryngopharynx (pars laryngea pharyngis);
  49. Pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube (ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae);
  50. Torus tubarius (torus tubarius);
  51. The areas where the tubal and paryngeal tonsils are located;
  52. Pharyngeal fornix (fornix pharyngis);
  53. Pharyngeal recess (recessus pharyngeus);
  54. Salpingopharyngeal fold (plica salpingopharyngea);
  55. Epiglottic cartilage (cartilago epiglottica);
  56. Arythenoid cartilage (cartilago arythenoidea);
  57. Aryepiglottic folds (plicae aryepiglotticae);
  58. Laryngeal inlet (aditus laryngis);
  59. Piriform recess (recessus piriformis);
  60. Pharyngeal constriction;
  61. Bronchial constriction;
  62. Diaphragmatic constriction;
  63. Aortic constriction;
  64. Cardiac constriction;
  65. Posterior wall of stomach (paries posterior)
  66. Anterior wall of stomach (paries anterior)
  67. Lesser curvature (curvatura minor)
  68. Greater curvature (curvatura major)
  69. Pyloric part (pars pylorica)
  70. Pyloric antrum (antrum pyloricum)
  71. Pyloric canal (canalis pyloricus)
  72. Pyloric sphincter (musculus sphincter pyloricus)
  73. Pyloric valve (valvula pylorica)
  74. Fundus of stomach (fundus gastricus)
  75. Body of stomach (corpus gastricus)
  76. Cardiac part (pars cardiaca)
  77. Cardiac orifice (ostium cardiacum)
  78. Angular notch (incisura angularis)
  79. Cardiac notch (incisura cardiaca)
  80. Gastric areas (areae gastricae)
  81. Gastric folds (plicae gastricae)
  82. Longitudinal fold of the stomach/gastric path
  83. Ampulla (bulb) of the duodenum (ampulla duodeni)
  84. Superior duodenal flexure (flexura duodeni superior)
  85. Inferior duodenal flexure (flexura duodeni inferior)
  86. Superior, descending, horizontal and ascending parts of the duodenum
  87. Duodenojejunal flexure (flexura duodenojejunalis)
  88. Circular folds of duodenum (plicae circulares duodeni)
  89. Longitudinal fold of duodenum (plica longitudinalis duodeni)
  90. Major and minor papillae of duodenum (papilla duodeni major and minor)
  91. Jejunum (jejunum)
  92. Ileum (ileum)
  93. Ileocaecal angle (angulus ileocaecalis)
  94. Caecum (caecum)
  95. Ascending colon (colon ascendens)
  96. Transverse colon (colon transversum)
  97. Descending colon (colon descendens)
  98. Sigmoid colon (colon sigmoideum)
  99. Rectum (rectum)
  100. Vermiform process (appendix vermiformis)
  101. Haustrae coli (haustrae coli)
  102. Epiploic appendices (appendices epiploicae)
  103. Taeniae coli (libera, omentalis, mesenterica)
  104. Right colic flexure (flexura colica dextra)
  105. Left colic flexure (flexura colica sinistra)
  106. Diaphragmatic surface of the liver (facies diaphragmatica)
  107. Visceral surface of the liver (facies visceralis)
  108. Right lobe of the liver (lobus dexter)
  109. Left lobe of the liver (lobus sinister)
  110. Falciform ligament (ligamentum falciforme)
  111. Coronary ligament (ligamentum coronarium hepatis)
  112. Triangular ligaments (right and left) (ligamentum triangulare (dextrum/ sinistrum))
  113. Right and left longitudinal grooves (sulcus longitudinalis dexter et sinister)
  114. Fissure for ligamentum venosum (fissura ligamenti venosi)
  115. Fissure for ligamentum teres (fissura ligamenti teretis)
  116. Fossa for gall bladder (fossa vesicae biliaris)
  117. Vesical notch (incisura vesicalis)
  118. Notch for the ligamentum teres (incisura ligamenti teretis)
  119. Ligamentum teres (ligamentum teres hepatis)
  120. Ligamentum venosum (ligamentum venosum)
  121. Gallbladder (vesica fellea): fundus, body, neck
  122. Cystic duct (ductus cysticus)
  123. Fundus of the gall bladder (fundus vesicae felleae)
  124. Bile duct (ductus choledochus)
  125. Common hepatic duct (ductus hepaticus communis)
  126. Quadrate lobe (lobus quadratus)
  127. Caudate lobe (lobus caudatus)
  128. Papillary process (processus papillaris)
  129. Caudate process (processus caudatus)
  130. Groove for the vena cava (sulcus venae cavae)
  131. Porta hepatis (porta hepatis)
  132. Portal vein (vena portae)
  133. Proper hepatic artery (arteria hepatica propria)
  134. Groove for the vena cava (sulcus venae cavae)
  135. Oesophageal impression (impressio oesophagealis);
  136. Gastric impression (impressio gastrica);
  137. Pyloric impression (impressio pylorica);
  138. Duodenal impression (impressio duodenalis);
  139. Colic impression (impressio colica);
  140. Renal impression (impressio renalis);
  141. Suprarenal impression (impressio suprarenalis);
  142. Head of the pancreas (caput pancreatis)
  143. Neck of the pancreas (collum pancreatici)
  144. Body of the pancreas (corpus pancreatis)
  145. Tail of the pancreas (cauda pancreatis)
  146. Uncinate process (processus uncinatus);
  147. Pancreatic surfaces: posterior, anterosuperior, anteroinferior
  148. Pancreatic borders: superior, anterior, inferior;
  149. Diaphragmatic surface of spleen (facies diaphragmatica);
  150. Visceral surface of spleen (facies visceralis);
  151. Hilum of spleen (hilum lienalis);
  152. Superior border of spleen (margo superior);
  153. Inferior border of spleen (margo inferior);
  154. Anterior extremity of spleen (extremitas anterior);
  155. Posterior extremity of spleen (extremitas posterior);
  156. Impressions on the spleen: colic, gastric, renal
  157. Upper storey of peritoneal cavity;
  158. Middle storey of peritoneal cavity;
  159. Lower storey of peritoneal cavity;
  160. Hepatic bursa (bursa hepatica);
  161. Pregastric bursa (bursa pregastrica);
  162. Epiploic foramen (foramen epiploicum);
  163. Omental bursa (bursa omentalis);
  164. Lesser omentum (omentum minus);
  165. Greater omentum (omentum majus);
  166. Transverse mesocolon (mesocolon transversus);
  167. Mesentery of the small intestine;
  168. Right mesenteric sinus (sinus mesentericus dexter);
  169. Left mesenteric sinus (sinus mesentericus sinister);
  170. Right paracolic canal (canalis paracolicus dexter);
  171. Left paracolic canal (canalis paracolicus sinister);
  172. Superior duodenal recess (recessus duodenalis superior);
  173. Inferior duodenal recess (recessus duodenalis inferior);
  174. Superior ileocaecal recess (recessus ileocaecalis superior);
  175. Inferior ileocaecal recess (recessus ileocaecalis inferior);
  176. Retrocaecal recess (recessus retrocaecalis);
  177. Intersigmoid recess (recessus intersigmoideus);
  178. Rectovesical recess (recessus rectovesicalis);
  179. Vesicouterine recess (recessus vesicouterina);
  180. Rectouterine recess (recessus rectouterina);
  181. Mesoappendix;
  182. Sigmoid mesocolon (mesocolon sigmoideum);
  183. Median umbilical fold (plica umbilicalis mediana);
  184. Medial umbilical fold (plica umbilicalis medialis);
  185. Lateral umbilical fold (plica umbilicalis lateralis);
  186. Supravesical fossa (fossa supravesicalis);
  187. Medial inguinal fossa (fossa inguinalis medialis);
  188. Lateral inguinal fossa (fossa inguinalis lateralis)

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 8. The structure of the nasal cavity, larynx and trachea.      Importance:      Diseases of the upper respiratory tract occur very often. In case of untimely treatment there can be serious complications. To make the diagnosis, correct therapeutic and surgical treatment of nasal and laryngeal diseases, it is necessary to know the anatomy and function of these organs.        Before you start to study the topic you need to know:
    1. The structure of the bony nasal cavity: superior, inferior, lateral walls and nasal septum (which bones form each of these walls)
    2. The topography of the organs in the neck; the muscles and fasciae of the neck.
    3. The location, structure and function of the nasopharynx and oropharynx.

     

          Questions:

    1. Describe the structure of the nasal cavity walls. What cartilages and bones form the walls of the nasal cavity? Describe the structure of the nasal septum. What openings lead into the nasal cavity? What openings communicate the nasal cavity with the nasopharynx?
    2. What is the nasal meatus? Describe the meatuses of the nasal cavity and their communications (what sinuses or canals open into each meatus).
    3. Describe the paranasal sinuses (their walls, relations with the surrounding structures, their communications and function).
    4. Describe the features of the nasal mucosa.
    5. Describe the skeletotopy of the larynx and its relations with surrounding organs (syntopy).
    6. Describe the cartilages of the larynx.
    7. What ligaments connected the laryngeal cartilages do you know?
    8. Describe the synovial joints of the laryngeal cartilages and the movements at these joints.
    9. What groups of the laryngeal muscles are distinguished?
    10. Describe the origin and insertion of the laryngeal muscles and their action.
    11. Describe the laryngeal cavity: the layers, the parts.
    12. Describe the functioning of the vocal apparatus.
    13. Describe the skeletotopy of the trachea; what is it length and diameter?
    14. What is the tracheal bifurcation? Describe the skeletotopy of the tracheal bifurcation.
    15. Describe the syntopy of the trachea`s cervical part.
    16. Describe the syntopy of the trachea`s thoracic part.
    17. Describe the structure of the tracheal walls.

    To watch the video for this topic click here Videomaterials 

  2. To watch the material about Tracheostomia
  3.     
  4.   Practice:
    1. Limen nasi (limen nasi);
    2. Nasal vestibule (vestibulum nasi);
    3. Proper nasal cavity (cavitas nasi propria);
    4. Olfactory region (regio olfactoria);
    5. Respiratory region (regio respiratoria);
    6. Choanae (choanae);
    7. Inferior nasal concha (concha nasalis inferior);
    8. Middle nasal concha (concha nasalis media);
    9. Superior nasal concha (concha nasalis superior);
    10. Inferior nasal meatus (meatus nasi inferior);
    11. Middle nasal meatus (meatus nasi medius);
    12. Superior nasal meatus (meatus nasi superior);
    13. Semilunar hiatus (hiatus semilunaris);
    14. Opening of nasolacrimal duct (foramen ductus lacrimalis);
    15. Frontal sinus (sinus frontalis);
    16. Sphenoidal sinus (sinus sphenoidalis);
    17. Maxillary sinus (sinus maxillaris);
    18. Ethmoidal air cells (cellulae ethmoidales);
    19. Nasopharynx (pars nasalis pharyngis);
    20. Oropharynx (pars oralis pharyngis);
    21. Pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube (ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae);
    22. Pharyngeal fornix (fornix pharyngis);
    23. Pharyngeal recess (recessus pharyngeus);
    24. Salpingopharyngeal fold (plica salpingopharyngea);
    25. Hyoid bone (os hyoideum): greater horn, lesser horns, body;
    26. Thyroid cartilage (cartilago thyroidea);
    27. Epiglottic cartilage (cartilago epiglottica): lamina, stalk (petiolus);
    28. Arythenoid cartilage (cartilago arythenoidea): apex, base, vocal process, muscular process;
    29. Cricoid cartilage (cartilago cricoidea): lamina, arch;
    30. Superior thyroid notch (incisura thyroidea superior);
    31. Inferior thyroid notch (incisura thyroidea inferior);
    32. Laryngeal prominence (prominentia laryngis);
    33. Superior horn of thyroid cartilage (cornu superius);
    34. Inferior horn of thyroid cartilage (cornu inferius);
    35. Cricothyroid ligament (ligamentum cricothyroideum);
    36. Oblique line (linea obliqua);
    37. Laryngeal inlet (aditus laryngis);
    38. Aryepiglottic folds (plicae aryepiglotticae);
    39. Interarythenoid fold (plica interarythenoidea);
    40. Interarythenoid notch (incisura interarythenoidea);
    41. Epiglottic tubercle (tuberculum epiglotticum);
    42. Triticial cartilage (cartilago triticia);
    43. Cuneifrom tubercle (tuberculum cuneiforme);
    44. Corniculate tubercle (tuberculum corniculatum);
    45. Piriform recess (recessus piriformis);
    46. Thyrohyoid membrane (membrana thyrohyoidea): median and lateral thyrohyoid ligaments;
    47. Vestibular ligament (ligamentum vestibulare);
    48. Elastic cone (conus elasticus);
    49. Quadrangular membrane (membrana quadrangularis);
    50. Cricoarythenoid joints (articulatio cricoarythenoidea) (the zones);
    51. Cricothyroid joints (articulatio cricoarythyroidea) (the zones);
    52. Cricothyroid ligament (ligamentum cricothyroideum);
    53. Cricotracheal ligament (ligamentum cricotracheale);
    54. Laryngeal vestibule (vestibulum laryngis);
    55. Vestibular folds (plicae vestibulares);
    56. Vocal folds (plicae vocales);
    57. Glottis (glottis);
    58. Rima glottidis (rima glottidis): intercartilaginous part and intermembranous part;
    59. Laryngeal ventricle (ventriculus laryngis);
    60. Infraglottic cavity (cavitas infraglottica)
    61. Transverse arythenoid muscle (musculus arythenoideus transversus);
    62. Oblique arythenoid muscle (musculus arythenoideus obliquus);
    63. Posterior cricoarythenoid muscle (musculus cricoerythenoideus posterior);
    64. Lateral cricoarythenoid muscle (musculus cricoerythenoideus lateralis);
    65. Thyroarythenoid muscle (musculus thyroarythenoideus);
    66. Cricothyroid muscle (musculus cricothyroideus);
    67. Thyroepiglottic muscle (musculus thyroepiglotticus);
    68. Aryepiglottic muscle (musculus aryepiglotticus);
    69. Trachea (trachea);
    70. Cartilages of trachea (cartilagines tracheales);
    71. Annular ligaments (ligamenta anularia tracheae);
    72. Membranous wall of trachea (paries membranaceus tracheae);
    73. Tracheal bifurcation (bifurcatio tracheae);
    74. Carina of trachea (carina tracheae)

     

  5. 9. The structure of lungs, pleura and mediastinum.

      Importance:

       The diseases of air ways and those organs where the gas exchange occurs, are often met in clinical practice. To make diagnosis and choose rational ways to treat inflammatory processes (bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, abscess etc), it is important to know the anatomy of the trachea, bronchi and the priciples of their division in lungs. To know the structure of lungs is necessary in diagnostics of lung diseases and during surgery on the lungs: depending on character of lung tissue defeats, doctors remove one lung entirely, or its separate lobes or segments.

Pleura has an important function in the body: reduces the friction between the lungs and the thorax, products and absorbs the pleural fluid. The pleura is often exposed to various diseases: pleuritis, tumor, injuries and so on.

      Mediastinum is a complex of organs (heart with pericardium, trachea, lungs, esophagus, aorta etc), located between the mediastinal pleurae. These organs are often exposed to diseases: heart diseases (myocardial infarction, aneurism, malformation, atherosclerosis of coronary arteries), lesions of the esophagus (stenosis, polyp, tumor), lesions of the trachea (inflammation, injury, tumor).

      Pleura and mediastinal organs are the subjects of conservative and surgical interventions. Therefore, to know their structure, topography and anatomical features are necessary for doctors of all specialties.

 

     Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure of the thoracic walls (what bones, muscles, fasciae form thoracic walls).
  2. Big and small blood circulations.
  3. Topographical lines of the thorax.

     Questions:

  1. Describe the right and left principal bronchi: length, diameter, structure, syntopy.
  2. Describe the differences between the left and the right principal bronchi and the left and right lungs.
  3. What surfaces do the lungs have? How you can differentiate the surfaces on the lung specimen?
  4. What borders do the lungs have? How you can differentiate the borders on the lung specimen?
  5. What is the hilum of the lung?
  6. What is the root of the lung? Describe its components. Describe the skeletotopy and  syntopy of the right and left pulmonary roots.
  7. Describe the position of the elements in the right and left pulmonary roots.
  8. Give the definition of the lung`s lobe and segment. How many lobes and segments are in each lung?
  9. Name the subdivisions of the bronchi from the principal to respiratory ones. What bronchi are included into the bronchial tree? Describe the differences in structure between the different types of the bronchi.
  10. What parts does the acinus include? How many acinuses are in each lobule? Describe the process of the exchange of gases in the acinus.
  11. Describe the surface projection of the right and left lungs: apex, anterior border and posterior border.
  12. Describe the surface projection of the right and left lung`s inferior border on the thorax:

— parasternal line –

— midclavicular line –

— anterior axillary line –

— midaxillary line –

— posterior axillary line –

— scapular line –

— paravertebral line –

25.Give the definition of the pleura. Describe its function. What layers does it consist of?

26.What is the pleural cavity? How many pleural cavities are in the thorax? What pressure exists in the pleural cavity? What is the role of such a pressure? What is the normal volume of the pleural fluid?

27. Describe the relations of the pleural cupula with surrounding organs.

28. Describe the skeletotopy of the pleural cupula.

29. Give the definition of the pleural sinus. Name the sinuses and describe their localization and function.

30. Describe the parts of the parietal pleura.

31. Describe the position of the mediastinal pleura anteriorly and posteriorly. What is the mediastinal septum? Where and how is it formed?

32. Where are the superior and inferior interpleural areas located? What is the practical importance of the inferior interpleural area?

33. Describe the anterior and posterior borders of the right and left parietal pleurae.

35. Describe the surface projection of the  right and left parietal pleura`s inferior border on the thorax.

— parasternal line –

—  midclavicular line –

—  anterior axillary line  –

— midaxillary line  –

— posterior axillary line  –

—  scapular line –

— paravertebral line –

 

37. Give the definition of the mediastinum.

38.Describe the walls of the mediastinum (anterior, posterior, inferior, laterals).

39. Name the organs of the mediastinum.

40.How can the mediastinum be classified? What lines divide the mediastinum into anterior and posterior; superior and inferior? How can the inferior mediastinum be classified? Name the organs  located in each part of the mediastinum.

 

Practice:

  1. Right principal bronchus (bronchus principalis dexter);
  2. Left principal bronchus (bronchus principalis sinister)
  3. Base of lung (basis pulmonus);
  4. Apex of lung (apex pulmonis);
  5. Costal surface of lung (facies costalis pulmonis);
  6. Medial surface of lung (facies medialis pulmonis);
  7. Diaphragmatic surface of lung (facies diaphragmatica pulmonis);
  8. Anterior border of lung (margo anterior pulmonis);
  9. Inferior border of lung (margo inferior pulmonis);
  10. Posterior border of lung (margo posterior pulmonis);
  11. Cardiac impression (impressio cardiaca);
  12. Cardiac notch (incisura cardiaca);
  13. Root of lung (radix pulmonis);
  14. Hilum of lung (hilus pulmonis);
  15. Lingula of left lung (lingula pulmonis sinistri);
  16. Oblique fissure (fissura obliqua);
  17. Horizontal fissure (fissura horizontalis)
  18. Upper lobe of lungs (lobus superior pulmonis);
  19. Lower lobe of lungs (lobus inferior pulmonis);
  20. Middle lobe of right lung (lobus medius pulmonis dextri);
  21. Parietal pleura (pleura parietalis);
  22. Visceral pleura (pleura visceralis);
  23. Pleural cavity (cavitas pleuralis);
  24. Diaphragmatic part of parietal pleura (pars diaphragmatica);
  25. Costal part of parietal pleura (pars costalis);
  26. Mediastinal part of parietal pleura (pars mediastinalis);
  27. Pleural cupula (cupula pleurae);
  28. Costodiaphragmatic recess (recessus costodiaphragmaticus);
  29. Superior and inferior interpleural areas (area interpleurica superior et inferior);
  30. Mediastinum (mediastinum)
    To watch the video for the topic click here Videomaterials To print the diagrams for the topic click here: Lung segmentation;Bronchial and alveolar tree; Borders of lungs and pleura;  Mediastinum 1; Mediastinum 2.  
  31. The task:Mark with different colors the lungs` segments and write their names on the diagram showing the lung segmentation        
  32. 10. The structure of the heart chambers 
  33. Importance:      The heart is the central organ of the vascular system. Cardiac arrest leads to death.      Heart diseases are the most common (stenocardia, myocardial infarction, violation of cardiac conduction, metabolic disorders in the cardiac muscle.)      Surgeries on the heart are very frequent (operation on the valves, installation of artificial valves, thrombectomy from the cardiac vessels). All this requires the knowledge of the anatomy and topography of the heart and pericardium.     
  34. Before you start to study the topic you need to know:
    1. The structure of the thoracic walls (what walls does it have; what bones, muscles, fasciae form each of these walls).
    2. Big and small circulations.
    3. The structure of the mediastinum

     

          Questions:

    1. Describe the position and the sizes of the heart.
    2. What surfaces does the heart have? What signs can help to differentiate the sternocostal (anterior) cardiac surface from the diaphragmatic (posterior) ssurface on the specimen of the heart? What signs can help to differentiate the left side of the heart from the right side?
    3. What chambers has the heart? Describe the projection of chambers onto cardiac surface.
    4. What are the atrioventricular orifices, where are they located? What diameter do they have?
    5. Where are the fibrous rings located?
    6. What great vessels start from the right and left ventricles? What type of blood do they carry? Describe the function of these vessels.
    7. What great vessels open into the right and left atria? What type of blood do they carry? Describe the function of these vessels.
    8. Describe the structure of the ventricles. Describe the differences between the left and right ventricle. How many papillary muscles are distinguished in the right and in the left ventricles?
    9. Describe the structure of the atria. Describe the differences between the left and right atrium. What is the function of the auricles? Where can the pectinate muscles be found?
    10. Describe the differences between the ventricles and atria.
    11. Where is the oval fossa located? How does it appear?
    12. Where is the opening of coronary sinus located? What is the function of the coronary sinus?
    13. Where is the tricuspid valve located? Name its cusps. Describe its functioning.
    14. Where is the bicuspid valve located? Name its cusps. Describe its functioning.
    15. Describe the aortic valve. Name its cusps. Where are the lunulae and nodules located? Describe their functions. Describe the functioning of the aortic valve.
    16. Describe the valve of the pulmonary trunk. Name its cusps. Where are the lunulae and nodules located? Describe their functions. Describe the functioning of the pulmonary trunk`s valve.
    17. What is the purpose of the papillary muscles and tendinous cords? How do these muscles work?
    18. Describe the phases of the heart work.

     

    Practice:

    1. Apex of heart (apex cordis)
    2. Base of heart (basis cordis)
    3. Sternocostal surface (facies sternocostalis)
    4. Diaphragmatic surface (facies diaphragmatica)
    5. Pulmonary surfaces (facies pulmonales)
    6. Right atrium (atrium dextrum)
    7. Left atrium (atrium sinistrum)
    8. Right auricle (auricula dextra)
    9. Left auricle (auricular sinistra)
    10. Right ventricle (ventriculus dexter)
    11. Left ventricle (ventruculus sinister)
    12. Interatrial septum (septum interatriale)
    13. Interventricular septum (septum interventriculare)
    14. Anterior interventricular sulcus (sulcus interventricularis anterior)
    15. Posterior interventricular sulcus (sulcus interventricularis posterior)
    16. Notch of cardiac apex (incisura apicis cordis)
    17. Opening of superior vena cava (ostium venae cavae superioris)
    18. Opening of inferior vena cava (ostium venae cavae inferioris)
    19. Opening of coronary sinus (ostium sinus coronarii)
    20. Valve of inferior vena cava (valvula venae cavae inferioris)
    21. Oval fossa (fossa ovalis)
    22. Pectinate muscles (musculi pectinati)
    23. Terminal sulcus (sulcus terminalis)
    24. Terminal crest (crista terminalis)
    25. Right atrioventricular orifice (ostium atrioventriculare dextrum)
    26. Left atrioventricular orifice (ostium atrioventriculare sinistrum)
    27. Right fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus dexter)
    28. Left fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus sinister)
    29. Opening of pulmonary trunk (ostium trunci pulmonalis)
    30. Valve of pulmonary trunk: anterior, right and left semilunar cusps (valva trunci pulmonales: valvula semilunaris anterior, dextra et sinistra)
    31. Sinuses of pulmonary trunk (sinus trunci pulmonalis)
    32. Lunula of semilunar casp (lunula valvulae semilunaris)
    33. Nodulus of semilunar casp (nodulus valvulae semilunaris)
    34. Tricuspid valve: anterior, posterior and septal cusps (valva tricuspidalis: cuspis anterior, posterior et septalis)
    35. Bicuspid valve: anterior and posterior (valva bicuspidalis: cuspis anterior et posterior)
    36. Tendinous cords (chordae tendineae)
    37. Papillary muscles (musculi papillares)
    38. Trabeculae carneae (trabeculae carneae)
    39. Openings of pulmonary veins (ostia venarum pulmonalium)
    40. Aortic orifice (ostium aortae)
    41. Aortic valve: posterior, right and left semilunar cusps (valva aortae: valvula semilunaris posterior, dextra et sinistra)
    42. Aortic sinuses (sinus aortae)
    43. Lunula of semilunar casp (lunula valvulae semilunaris)
    44. Nodulus of semilunar casp (nodulus valvulae semilunaris)
    45. Aortic bulb (bulbus aortae)
    46. Superior vena cava (vena cava superior)
    47. Inferior vena cava (vena cava inferior)
    48. Coronary sinus (sinus coronarius)
    49. Pulmonary trunk (truncus pulmonalis)
    50. Pulmonary veins (venae pulmonales)

     To watch the video for the topic click here Videomaterials

    11. The cardiac conducting system. Topography of the heart. Structure of the pericardium.  Cardiac arteries and veins. 

         Importance:

          The heart is the central organ of the vascular system. Cardiac arrest leads to death.

          Heart diseases are the most common (stenocardia, myocardial infarction, violation of cardiac conduction, metabolism disorders of the heart muscle.)

          Surgeries on heart are very frequent (operation on the valves, installation of artificial valves, thrombectomy vessels of the heart). All this requires the knowledge of the anatomy and topography of the heart and pericardium.

     

    Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

    1. The structure of the thoracic walls (what walls does it have; what bones, muscles, fasciae form each of these walls).
    2. Topographical lines of the thorax.
    3. The structure of the mediastinum

     

         Questions:

    1. Name the layers of the heart chambers in sequence.
    2. Describe the structure of the atrial myocardium.
    3. Describe the structure of the ventricular myocardium.Describe the structure of the cardiac conducting system. Explain its functioning.
    4. Describe the surface projection of the superior, inferior, right and left borders of the heart. 
    5. Describe  the surface projection of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves.
    6. Describe the surface projection of the valves of the aorta and pulmonary trunk.
    7. What layers does the pericardium consist of?
    8. Where is the pericardial cavity located? What is the normal volume of the pericardial fluid?
    9. What parts of the fibrous pericardium do you know?
    10. Where are the transverse and oblique pericardial sinuses located?
    11. Name the branches of the right coronary artery and describe which parts of the heart they supply with blood.
    12. Name the branches of the left coronary artery and describe which parts of the heart they supply with blood.
    13. Describe the main arterial anastomoses in the heart.
    14. What groups of the cardiac veins do you know?
    15. What veins drain into the coronary sinus?
    16. Where do the anterior cardiac veins drain into?
    17. Where do the smallest cardiac veins drain into?
    18. Where are the superficial and deep cardiac nervous plexuses located?
    19. What structures of the heart form the left cardiac arches on X-ray pictures?
    20. What structures of the heart form the right cardiac arches on X-ray pictures?
    21. What variants of the heart position do you know? Describe them. 

    Practice:

    1. Aortic bulb (bulbus aortae)
    2. Aortic sinuses (sinus aortae)
    3. Right coronary artery (arteria coronaria dextra)
    4. Left coronary artery (arteria coronaria sinistra)
    5. Anterior interventricular branch (ramus interventricularis anterior)
    6. Posterior interventricular branch (ramus interventricularis posterior)
    7. Circumflex branch (ramus circumflexus)
    8. Coronary sinus (sinus coronarius)
    9. Great cardiac vein (vena cordis magna)
    10. Posterior vein of left ventricle (vena posterior ventriculi sinistri)
    11. Oblique vein of left atrium (vena obliqua atrii sinistri)
    12. Middle cardiac vein (vena cordis media)
    13. Small cardiac vein (vena cordis parva)
    14. Anterior cardiac veins (venae cordis anteriores)
    15. Transverse pericardial sinus (sinus transversus pericardii)
    16. Oblique pericardial sinus (sinus obliquus pericardii)

     

    X-ray Skills:

    1. Inferior right arch – right atrium
    2. Superior right arch – ascending aorta and superior vena cava
    3. The first (superior) left arch – aortic arch
    4. The second left arch – pulmonary trunk
    5. The third left arch – left auricle
    6. The fourth (inferior) left arch – left ventricle

    To watch the video for the topic click here Videomaterials

     To print the diagrams for the topic click here Cardiac conducting system; Structure of myocardium and pericardium; Surface projection of the heart

     

     12. The structure of the kidney, ureter and urinary bladder

    Importance:

          The material of this topic is needed to study the physiology of the urinary system. The knowledge of the urinary system anatomy is necessary for a therapeutist, urologist and doctors of other specialities.

     

    Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

    1. The structure of the abdominal and pelvic  walls.

         

    1. The walls of the retroperitoneal space.
    2. The peritoneal arrangement.

     

          Questions:

    1. What surfaces, poles, borders does the kidney have? What signs can help you to differentiate the anatomical specimen of the right kidney from the left one? Describe the sizes of the kidney.
    2. What is the renal hilum?
    3. What is the “renal leg”?
    4. What is the renal sinus? What structures does it contain?
    5. What tissues cover the kidney? (name in series all of them, beginning from the renal parenchyma)
    6. What muscles form the renal bed?
    7. What mechanisms of kidney fixation do you know?
    8. Describe the skeletotopy and syntopy of both kidneys.
    9. What components does the renal cortex include?
    10. What components does the renal medulla include?
    11. Name in series the branches of the renal artery up to the peritubular capillaries.
    12. Describe venous blood stream in the kidney.
    13. Name in series the parts of the nephron.
    14. What does the renal corpuscle consists of?
    15. Describe in details the functioning of the nephron.
    16. Give the definition of the juxtamedullary nephrons. Describe the features of their functioning.
    17. Describe the juxtaglomerular apparatus of kidneys.
    18. Describe the pathway of urine sequentially, beginning from the collecting tubules.
    19. Describe the kidney`s fornical apparatus.
    20. Describe the walls of the minor and major calyces and of the renal pelvis.
    21. What is the length and diameter of the ureter? Name the parts of the ureter.
    22. What is the structure of the ureteric wall.
    23. Describe the places of the ureter`s constrictions.
    24. What parts of the urinary bladder do you know? Where is the apex directed? Where is the fundus directed? What is capacity of the bladder?
    25. Describe the layers of the bladder`s wall. Describe the features of the muscular and mucous layers. What is the vesical triangle? Why is it formed?
    26. Describe the topography of the urinary bladder in males and in females.
    27. Describe the relation of the urinary bladder to the peritoneum.

     

    Practice:

    1. Kidney (ren);
    2. Anterior surface of kidney (facies anterior renis);
    3. Posterior surface of kidney (facies posterior renis);
    4. Superior pole of kidney (extremitas superior renis);
    5. Inferior pole of kidney (extremitas inferior renis);
    6. Lateral border of kidney (margo lateralis renis);
    7. Medial border of kidney (margo medialis renis);
    8. Renal hilum (hilus renalis);
    9. Renal sinus (sinus renalis);
    10. Renal cortex (cortex renalis);
    11. Renal medulla (medulla renalis);
    12. Renal pyramids (pyramides renales);
    13. Renal papilla (papilla renalis);
    14. Renal columns (columnae renales);
    15. Radiate part of cortex (pars radiata);
    16. Convoluted part of cortex (pars convoluta);
    17. Minor calyces (calyces renales minores);
    18. Major calyces (calyces renales majores);
    19. Renal pelvis (pelvis renalis);
    20. Abdominal part of ureter (pars abdominalis);
    21. Pelvic part of ureter (pars pelvica);
    22. Urinary bladder (vesica urinaria);
    23. Fundus of urinary bladder (fundus vesicae);
    24. Body of urinary bladder (corpus vesicae);
    25. Apex of urinary bladder (apex vesicae);
    26. Neck of urinary bladder (cervix vesicae);
    27. Internal urethral orifice (ostium urethrae internum);
    28. Orifice of ureter (ostia ureteres);
    29. External orifice of female urethra (ostium externum urethrae femininum);
    30. External orifice of male urethra (ostium externum urethrae masculinum);
    31. Trigone of urinary bladder (trigonum vesicae);
    32. Uvula of urinary bladder (uvula vesicalis);
    33. Interureteric fold (plica interureterica);
    34. Retroureteric fossa (fossa retroureterica);

     

    X-ray:

    1. Kidney (ren)
    2. Minor calyces (calyces renales minores)
    3. Major calyces (calyces renales majores)
    4. Renal pelvis (pelvis renalis)
    5. Abdominal part of ureter (pars abdominalis)
    6. Pelvic part of ureter (pars pelvica)
    7. Urinary bladder (vesica urinaria)

    To watch the video for the topic click here Videomaterials 

    To print the diagrams for the topic click here Branching of the renal artery; Structure of nephron

     13. Male reproductive system

         Importance:

         To know the structure of the male reproductive system and male urethra is needed to study the clinical disciplines: it is necessary to understand pathology of these organs. The understanding of the structure of internal male reproductive organs is important in urology, surgery, endocrinology (the science that studies the disorder of the endocrine glands), sexopathology etc.

     

    Perineal muscles hold the pelvic organs, create conditions for normal topography and their functioning. Sphincters of the rectum and urethra are genetically, topographically and functionally related with the muscles of the perineum. Weakness of the perineal muscles as a result of the age involutional processes or traumatic defeats leads to change in the position of the pelvic organs and disruption of their function. In these cases, the perineum undergoes to surgical interventions to restore its integrity.

     

         Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

    1. The structure of the pelvis (bones, ligaments).
    2. The structure of the peritoneal cavity`s lower storey.
    1. The location and structure of the inguinal canal.

     

          Questions:

    1. Name the male reproductive organs.
    2. Which of the male reproductive organs belong to external and internal?
    3. Describe the function of the testis, their sizes and location.
    4. What borders, surfaces, poles of the testis do you know? What signs can help you to distinguish the right anatomical specimen of the testis from the left one?
    5. Name the coats of the testis in order. Describe the origin of each testicular coat.
    6. Describe the structure of the testicular lobule. How many lobules are in the testis?
    7. Where are spermatozoa produced?
    8. Describe the pathway of the sperm, beginning from the convoluted seminiferous tubules up to the prostatic part of the urethra.
    9. What is the spermatic cord? Name its components and coats.
    10. Describe the location of the spermatic cord.
    11. What is the function of the deferent duct?
    12. What is the length of the deferent duct?
    13. Describe the layers of the deferent duct`s wall.
    14. Where does the deferent duct start and open?
    15. What parts of the deferent duct do you know?
    16. How is the ejaculatory duct formed?
    17. What is the function of the seminal vesicles? What are their sizes? Describe their location, structure and syntopy.
    18. What is the function of the prostate? What is its size? Describe its location, structure and syntopy.
    19. What is the function of the bulbo-urethral glands? Describe their location.
    20. What parts of the penis are distinguished?
    21. How is the penis fixed to the body?
    22. What part of the penis contains urethra?
    23. Describe the structure and physiology of the cavernous bodies.
    24. Name the parts of the male urethra. Describe the location and structure of each part. Describe the structure of the urethral wall.
    25. Describe the sphincters of the male urethra. Which of them are voluntary and involuntary?
    26. Describe the descent of testes. Which mechanisms contribute to the descent of testes?
    1. Give the definition of the perineum.
    2. What structures bound the perineum?
    3. What regions are distinguished in the perineum?
    4. What organs pass through the perineum in males?
    5. What opening is on the male perineum?
    6. Name the muscles of urogenital diaphragm.
    7. Name the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm.
    8. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the transversus perinei superficialis.
    9. Describe the origin, insertion and action in males of the ischiocavernosus.
    10. Describe the origin, insertion and action in males of the bulbospongiosus.
    11. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the transversus perinei profundus.
    12. How is the external urethral sphincter formed?
    13. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the levator ani.
    14. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the sphincter ani externus.
    15. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the coccygeus.
    16. Describe the fasciae of the urogenital diaphragm.
    17. Describe the fasciae of the pelvic diaphragm.
    18. Describe the borders of the ischiorectal fossa.
    19. What is the clinical importance of the ischiorectal fossa?

     

         Practice:

    1. Scrotum (scrotum);
    2. Raphe of scrotum (raphe scroti);
    3. Tunica albuginea (tunica albuginea testis);
    4. Medial surface of testis (facies medialis testis);
    5. Lateral surface of testis (facies lateralis testis);
    6. Anterior border of testis (margo anterior testis);
    7. Posterior border of testis (margo posterior testis);
    8. Inferior pole of testis (extremitas inferior testis);
    9. Superior pole of testis (extremitas superior testis);
    10. Spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus);
    11. Lobules of testis (lobuli testis);
    12. Mediastinum of testis (mediastinum testis);
    13. Epididymis (epididymis): head, body, tail;
    14. Sinus of epididymis (sinus epididymis);
    15. Deferent duct (ductus deferens);
    16. Ampulla  of deferent duct (ampula ductus deferentis);
    17. Seminal vesicles (vesuculae seminales);
    18. Prostate (prostate): apex, base, anterior and posterior surfaces, right and left lobes, urethral crest, seminal colliculus, prostatic utricle, prostatic sinuses;
    19. Glans penis (glans penis);
    20. Prepuce (preputium penis);
    21. Corona of glans (corona glandis);
    22. Neck of glans (collum glandis);
    23. Frenulum (frenulum preputii);
    24. Root of penis (radix penis);
    25. Dorsum of penis (dorsum penis;
    26. Corpus of penis (corpus penis);
    27. Crus of penis (crus penis);
    28. Corpus cavernosum (corpora cavernosa);
    29. Corpus spongiosum (corpus spongiosum);
    30. Bulb of penis (bulbus penis);
    31. Prostatic part of urethra (pars prostatica urethrae);
    32. Spongiose part of urethra (pars spongiosa urethrae);
    33. External orifice of male urethra (ostium externum urethrae masculinum);
    34. Navicular fossa (fossa navicularis)

     To print the diagram for the topic click here Male reproductive system

     

    To watch the video for the topic click here Videomaterials

     

    14.Female reproductive system 

    Importance:

          To know the structure of female reproductive organs is necessary since their functions are childbearing and childbirth. Based on knowledge of the female reproductive system anatomy the science obstetrics was created. The obstetric care follows features of the female reproductive system.  Practical medicine faces many diseases of the female reproductive organs, diagnosis and treatment of which are studied in a special discipline, gynecology.

     

    Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

    1. The structure of the pelvic cavity.
    2. Topography of the internal organs in the lower peritoneal storey.

     

          Questions:

    1. Name the female reproductive organs.
    2. Which of the female reproductive organs belong to external and to internal organs?
    3. Describe the position and syntopy of the uterus.
    4. How is the uterus covered by the peritoneum? What are the vesicouterine recess and recrouterine recess?
    5. Describe the ligaments of the uterus.
    6. Describe the normal position of the uterus. How does the state of the urinary bladder and of the rectum effect the position of the uterus? What is anteflexio and anteversio (retroflexio and retroversio)?
    7. What sizes can the uterus have, depending on the state? Describe the parts and the surfaces of the uterus.
    8. What signs can help to differentiate the anterior uterine surface from the posterior surface on the anatomical specimen of the uterus?
    9. Describe the relations between the uterine cervix and vagina. What are supravaginal and vaginal portions of the cervix?
    10. What canal is the continuation of the uterine cavity?
    11. Where is the uterine orifice situated? Where does it open? What are the differences between the shape of the uterine orifice in nulliparous and parous women?
    12. Which organs open into the uterine cavity?
    13. Describe the layers of the uterine wall. What layers does the endometrium consist of? How many layers compose the myometrium? What is the perimetrium and parametrium?
    14. What is the function of the uterine tube?
    15. What openings does the uterine tube have? Where do they open?
    16. What is the length and diameter of the uterine tube? Describe the parts of the uterine tube. In which part of the uterine tube does fertilization occur?
    17. Describe the layers of the uterine tube`s wall.
    18. How is the uterine tube covered by the peritoneum? What is the mesosalpinx?
    19. Describe the position of the ovaries (relatively to the uterine tube and to the uterus). What sizes does the ovary have?
    20. What surfaces, borders, extremities are distinguished in the ovary? How to differentiate the ovarian medial surface from the lateral one on the anatomical specimen of the ovary?
    21. Describe the relations between the ovary and peritoneum. What is the mesovarium?
    22. Describe the internal structure of the ovary. What types of the ovarian follicles do you know? When the different types of the follicles appear? Describe the stages of the maturation of the follicles.
    23. What is the ovulation? When does it occur? What happens with the follicle after the ovulation?
    24. What is the corpus luteum and albicans? What is the function of the corpus luteum?
    25. Describe the phases of the menstrual cycle (their length and the processes happening in each of the phase).
    26. Describe the position of the vagina. What is the length of the vagina?
    27. What are the vaginal fornices? Where are they formed? What is their clinical importance?
    28. Describe the layers of the vaginal walls. Describe the features of the vaginal mucosa (glands, folds).
    29. Where is the vaginal orifice located? What are the relations between the urethra and vagina; between the external urethral orifice and vaginal orifice?
    30. Where is the hymen located? Describe its structure and shape. What is the distance between the hymen and vaginal orifice?
    31. What is the length and diameter of the female urethra? Describe its position.
    32. Where are the internal and external orifices of the female urethra located?
    33. Describe the layers of the female urethra.
    34. Describe the structure of the labia majors and minors pudendi. What is the vaginal vestibule? How are the prepuce and frenulum of the clitoris formed?
    35. Describe the parts and fixation of the clitoris. What part of the penis does it correspond to?
    36. What is the vestibular bulb? Describe its location and structure. What part of the penis does it correspond to?
    37. Where are major vestibular glands located? What is their function?
    38. Describe the structure of mammary gland and its age changes.
    39. Give the definition of the perineum.
    40. What structures bound the perineum?
    41. What regions are distinguished in the perineum?
    42. What organs pass through the perineum in males?
    43. What opening is on the male perineum?
    44. Name the muscles of urogenital diaphragm.
    45. Name the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm.
    46. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the transversus perinei superficialis.
    47. Describe the origin, insertion and action in males of the ischiocavernosus.
    48. Describe the origin, insertion and action in males of the bulbospongiosus.
    49. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the transversus perinei profundus.
    50. How is the external urethral sphincter formed?
    51. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the levator ani.
    52. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the sphincter ani externus.
    53. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the coccygeus.
    54. Describe the fasciae of the urogenital diaphragm.
    55. Describe the fasciae of the pelvic diaphragm.
    56. Describe the borders of the ischiorectal fossa.
    57. What is the clinical importance of the ischiorectal fossa?

     

    Practical Skills:

    1. Fundus of uterus (fundus uteri);
    2. Corpus of uterus (corpus uteri);
    3. Isthmus of uterus (cervix uteri);
    4. Cervix of uterus (cervix uteri): supravaginal and vaginal parts;
    5. External os of uterus (ostium uteri externum);
    6. Internal os of uterus (ostium uteri internum);
    7. Anterior and posterior surfaces of uterus (facies anterior et posterior uteri);
    8. Anterior and posterior lips of the vaginal portion of cervix (labium anterius at posterius);
    9. Vaginal fornices: anterior, posterior, laterals (fornix vaginae);
    10. Round ligament of uterus (ligamentum teres uteri);
    11. Broad ligament of uterus (ligamentum latum uteri);
    12. Endometrium (endometrium);
    13. Myometrium (myometrium);
    14. Perimetrium (perimetrium);
    15. Ovary (ovarium);
    16. Free border of ovary (margo libera ovari);
    17. Mesovarian border of ovary (margo mesovarica ovari);
    18. Uterine extremity of ovary (extremitas uterina);
    19. Tubal extremity of ovary (extremitas tubaria);
    20. Hilum of ovary (hilum ovarii);
    21. Tunica albuginea (tunica albuginea);
    22. Ovarian cortex (cortex ovarii);
    23. Ovarian medulla (medulla ovarii);
    24. Mesovarium (mesovarium);
    25. Suspensory ligament of ovary (ligamentum suspensorium ovari);
    26. Ovarian ligament (ligamentum proprium ovarii);
    27. Uterine tube (tuba uterina);
    28. Mesosalpinx (mesosalpinx);
    29. Uterine part of uterine tube (pars uterina tubae);
    30. Ampulla of uterine tube (ampulla tubae uterinae);
    31. Isthmus of uterine tube (isthmus tubae uterinae);
    32. Infundibulum of uterine tube (infundibulum tubae uterinae);
    33. Fimbriae of uterine tube (fimbriae tubae uterinae);
    34. Uterine orifice of uterine tube (ostium uterinum);
    35. Abdominal orifice of uterine tube (ostium abdominalis);
    36. Labia majora and minora pudendi (labia pudendi minores et majores);
    37. Anterior and posterior commissures of labia majora (comissura labiorum anterior et posterior);
    38. Vaginal vestibule (vestibulum vaginae);
    39. Vaginal orifice (ostium vaginae);
    40. Clitoris (clitoris): glans, corpus, crura.
    41. Prepuce of clitoris (preputium clitoridis);
    42. Frenulum of the clitoris (frenulum clitoridis)

     

    To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials 

     15. Perineum

         Importance:

          Perineal muscles hold the pelvic organs, create conditions for normal topography and their functioning. Sphincters of the rectum and urethra are genetically, topographically and functionally related with the muscles of the perineum. Weakness of the muscles of the perineum as a result of the involutional process and the traumatic defeats leads to a change in the position of the pelvic organs and disruption of their activities. Perineal area is a subject to surgical interventions, which aim is to restore their integrity.

         Before the study of the topic you should know:

    1. The structure of the pelvis (bones, ligaments, muscles).
    2. The structure of the peritoneal cavity`s lower storey; what organs are located here.

         Questions:

    1. Give the definition of the perineum.
    2. What structures bound the perineum?
    3. What regions are distinguished in the perineum?
    4. What organs pass through the perineum in females (males)?
    5. Name the muscles of urogenital diaphragm.
    6. Name the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm.
    7. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the transversus perinei superficialis.
    8. Describe the origin, insertion and action (in males and females) of the ischiocavernosus.
    9. Describe the origin, insertion and action (in males and females) of the bulbospongiosus.
    10. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the transversus perinei profundus.
    11. How is the external urethral sphincter formed?
    12. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the levator ani.
    13. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the sphincter ani externus.
    14. Describe the origin, insertion and action of the coccygeus.
    15. Describe the fasciae of the urogenital diaphragm.
    16. Describe the fasciae of the pelvic diaphragm.
    17. Describe the borders of the ischiorectal fossa.
    18. What is the clinical importance of the ischiorectal fossa?
    19. Describe the features of the female perineum.

         Show on model:

    1. Structures of the bones, which bound the perineum.
    2. Urogenital diaphragm (diaphragma urogenitalis)
    3. Pelvic diaphragm (diaphragma pelvis)
    4. Anus (anus)
    5. Vaginal orifice (ostium vaginae)
    6. External urethral orifice (ostim urethrae externum)
    7. Superficial transverse perineal muscle (m. transversus perinei superficialis)
    8. Ischiocavernosus muscle (m. ischiocavernosus)
    9. Bulbospongiosus muscle (m. bulbospongiosus)
    10. Deep transverse perineal muscle (m. transversus perinei profundus)
    11. External urethral sphincter (m. sphincter urethrae externus)
    12. Sphincter ani externus  (m. sphincter ani externus)
    13. Levator ani muscle (m. levator ani)
    14. Coccygeal muscle (m. coccygeus)
    15. Ischiorectal fossa (fossa ischiorectalis)

Major Internal Organs

Questions for major Internal Organs

  1. Describe the paranasal sinuses, their walls and communications.
  2. Describe the larynx: skeletotopy, syntopy, communications, parts, the structure of the wall, the features of the mucosa.
  3. Describe the laryngeal articulations: ligaments (names, attachment) and synovial joints (names, localization, movements).
  4. Describe the laryngeal muscles: name and group them in accordance with the function.
  5. Describe the trachea and principal bronchi: skeletotopy, syntopy, structure of the wall; the differences between the right and the left bronchi.
  6. Describe the roots of the lungs: skeletotopy, syntopy, position of the elements in the roots of the right and left lungs.
  7. Describe the bronchial tree: name the bronchial subdivisions, the structural features of the different bronchi.
  8. Describe the alveolar tree: the parts, the structure of the wall; describe the process of exchange of gases.
  9. Describe the skeletotopy of the lungs`s apices; anterior, posterior and inferior borders.
  10. Give the definition of the mediastinum. Classify it. Name the organs of the anterior and posterior, and superior and inferior mediastinum.
  11. Name the parts of the parietal pleura. What is the pleural cavity? What is the normal volume of the pleural fluid? Define and name the pleural sinuses; describe their function and location.
  12. Describe the skeletotopy of the pleural cupulae; anterior, posterior and inferior borders of the pleura.
  13. Describe the structure of the myocardium in the atria and ventricles.
  14. Describe the structure of the pericardium. What is the pericardial cavity? What is the normal volume of the pericardial fluid?
  15. Describe the structure and functioning of the cardiac conduction system.
  16. Describe the coronary arteries, their origin, branches, and the zones of the blood supply.
  17. Describe the cardiac venous systems. What veins open into the coronary sinus?
  18. Describe the mechanisms of the kidney fixation. What muscles form the renal ‘bed’? What layers surround the kidney?
  19. Describe the blood supply of the kidney: the branching of the renal artery and the formation of the glomerulus.
  20. Describe the structure of the nephron; the location of the nephron parts. Describe the functioning of the nephron. What types of the nephrons do you know?
  21. Describe the fornical apparatus of the kidney: the structure and functioning. Describe the urinary tract, beginning from the collecting ducts.
  22. Describe the way of sperm, beginning from the convoluted seminiferous tubules.
  23. Describe the topography, structure and function of the prostate, seminal vesicles and bulbo-urethral glands.
  24. Describe the parts of the deferent ducts; the components and parts of the spermatic cord and the formation of the ejaculatory duct.
  25. Describe the parts and sphincters of the male urethra.
  26. Describe the structure of the ovary and its functioning during the menstrual cycle.
  27. Describe the structure of the uterine wall. Describe the functioning and changes of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle.
  28. Describe the limits of the perineal region. Describe the limits, openings, muscles and fasciae of the urogenital diaphragm. Which reproductive organs in males and females pass through the urogenital diaphragm and are situated in the urogenital region?
  29. Describe the limits of the perineal region. Describe the limits, opening, muscles and fasciae of the pelvic diaphragm; describe the walls of the ischiorectal fossa and its clinical importance.

 

Practical part

 

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

 

  1. Limen nasi (limen nasi);
  2. Nasal vestibule (vestibulum nasi);
  3. Proper nasal cavity (cavitas nasi propria);
  4. Olfactory region (regio olfactoria);
  5. Respiratory region (regio respiratoria);
  6. Choanae (choanae);
  7. Inferior nasal concha (concha nasalis inferior);
  8. Middle nasal concha (concha nasalis media);
  9. Superior nasal concha (concha nasalis superior);
  10. Inferior nasal meatus (meatus nasi inferior);
  11. Middle nasal meatus (meatus nasi medius);
  12. Superior nasal meatus (meatus nasi superior);
  13. Semilunar hiatus (hiatus semilunaris);
  14. Opening of nasolacrimal duct (foramen ductus lacrimalis);
  15. Frontal sinus (sinus frontalis);
  16. Sphenoidal sinus (sinus sphenoidalis);
  17. Maxillary sinus (sinus maxillaris);
  18. Ethmoidal air cells (cellulae ethmoidales);
  19. Nasopharynx (pars nasalis pharyngis);
  20. Oropharynx (pars oralis pharyngis);
  21. Pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube (ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae);
  22. Pharyngeal fornix (fornix pharyngis);
  23. Pharyngeal recess (recessus pharyngeus);
  24. Salpingopharyngeal fold (plica salpingopharyngea);
  25. Hyoid bone (os hyoideum): greater horn, lesser horns, body;
  26. Thyroid cartilage (cartilago thyroidea);
  27. Epiglottic cartilage (cartilago epiglottica): lamina, stalk (petiolus);
  28. Arythenoid cartilage (cartilago arythenoidea): apex, base, vocal process, muscular process;
  29. Cricoid cartilage (cartilago cricoidea): lamina, arch;
  30. Superior thyroid notch (incisura thyroidea superior);
  31. Inferior thyroid notch (incisura thyroidea inferior);
  32. Laryngeal prominence (prominentia laryngis);
  33. Superior horn of thyroid cartilage (cornu superius);
  34. Inferior horn of thyroid cartilage (cornu inferius);
  35. Cricothyroid ligament (ligamentum cricothyroideum);
  36. Oblique line (linea obliqua);
  37. Laryngeal inlet (aditus laryngis);
  38. Aryepiglottic folds (plicae aryepiglotticae);
  39. Interarythenoid fold (plica interarythenoidea);
  40. Interarythenoid notch (incisura interarythenoidea);
  41. Epiglottic tubercle (tuberculum epiglotticum);
  42. Triticial cartilage (cartilago triticia);
  43. Cuneifrom tubercle (tuberculum cuneiforme);
  44. Corniculate tubercle (tuberculum corniculatum);
  45. Piriform recess (recessus piriformis);
  46. Thyrohyoid membrane (membrana thyrohyoidea): median and lateral thyrohyoid ligaments;
  47. Vestibular ligament (ligamentum vestibulare);
  48. Elastic cone (conus elasticus);
  49. Quadrangular membrane (membrana quadrangularis);
  50. Cricoarythenoid joints (articulatio cricoarythenoidea);
  51. Cricothyroid joints (articulatio cricoarythyroidea);
  52. Cricothyroid ligament (ligamentum cricothyroideum);
  53. Cricotracheal ligament (ligamentum cricotracheale);
  54. Laryngeal vestibule (vestibulum laryngis);
  55. Vestibular folds (plicae vestibulares);
  56. Vocal folds (plicae vocales);
  57. Glottis (glottis);
  58. Rima glottidis (rima glottidis): intercartilaginous part and intermembranous part;
  59. Laryngeal ventricle (ventriculus laryngis);
  60. Infraglottic cavity (cavitas infraglottica);
  61. Transverse arythenoid muscle (musculus arythenoideus transversus);
  62. Oblique arythenoid muscle (musculus arythenoideus obliquus);
  63. Posterior cricoarythenoid muscle (musculus cricoerythenoideus posterior);
  64. Lateral cricoarythenoid muscle (musculus cricoerythenoideus lateralis);
  65. Thyroarythenoid muscle (musculus thyroarythenoideus);
  66. Cricothyroid muscle (musculus cricothyroideus);
  67. Thyroepiglottic muscle (musculus thyroepiglotticus);
  68. Aryepiglottic muscle (musculus aryepiglotticus);
  69. Trachea (trachea);
  70. Cartilages of trachea (cartilagines tracheales);
  71. Annular ligaments (ligamenta anularia tracheae);
  72. Membranous wall of trachea (paries membranaceus tracheae);
  73. Tracheal bifurcation (bifurcatio tracheae);
  74. Carina of trachea (carina tracheae);
  75. Right principal bronchus (bronchus principalis dexter);
  76. Left principal bronchus (bronchus principalis sinister);
  77. Base of lung (basis pulmonus);
  78. Apex of lung (apex pulmonis);
  79. Costal surface of lung (facies costalis pulmonis);
  80. Medial surface of lung (facies medialis pulmonis);
  81. Diaphragmatic surface of lung (facies diaphragmatica pulmonis);
  82. Anterior border of lung (margo anterior pulmonis);
  83. Inferior border of lung (margo inferior pulmonis);
  84. Posterior border of lung (margo posterior pulmonis);
  85. Cardiac impression (impressio cardiaca);
  86. Cardiac notch (incisura cardiaca);
  87. Root of lung (radix pulmonis);
  88. Hilum of lung (hilus pulmonis);
  89. Lingula of left lung (lingula pulmonis sinistri);
  90. Oblique fissure (fissura obliqua);
  91. Horizontal fissure (fissura horizontalis)
  92. Upper lobe of lungs (lobus superior pulmonis);
  93. Lower lobe of lungs (lobus inferior pulmonis);
  94. Middle lobe of right lung (lobus medius pulmonis dextri);
  95. Parietal pleura (pleura parietalis);
  96. Visceral pleura (pleura visceralis);
  97. Pleural cavity (cavitas pleuralis);
  98. Diaphragmatic part of parietal pleura (pars diaphragmatica);
  99. Costal part of parietal pleura (pars costalis);
  100. Mediastinal part of parietal pleura (pars mediastinalis);
  101. Pleural cupula (cupula pleurae);
  102. Costodiaphragmatic recess (recessus costodiaphragmaticus);
  103. Superior and inferior interpleural areas (area interpleurica superior et inferior);
  104. Mediastinum (mediastinum);

 

HEART

 

  1. Apex of heart (apex cordis);
  2. Base of heart (basis cordis);
  3. Sternocostal surface (facies sternocostalis);
  4. Diaphragmatic surface (facies diaphragmatica);
  5. Pulmonary surfaces (facies pulmonales);
  6. Right atrium (atrium dextrum);
  7. Left atrium (atrium sinistrum);
  8. Right auricle (auricula dextra);
  9. Left auricle (auricular sinistra);
  10. Right ventricle (ventriculus dexter);
  11. Left ventricle (ventruculus sinister);
  12. Interatrial septum (septum interatriale);
  13. Interventricular septum (septum interventriculare);
  14. Anterior interventricular sulcus (sulcus interventricularis anterior);
  15. Posterior interventricular sulcus (sulcus interventricularis posterior);
  16. Notch of cardiac apex (incisura apicis cordis);
  17. Opening of superior vena cava (ostium venae cavae superioris);
  18. Opening of inferior vena cava (ostium venae cavae inferioris);
  19. Opening of coronary sinus (ostium sinus coronarii);
  20. Valve of inferior vena cava (valvula venae cavae inferioris);
  21. Oval fossa (fossa ovalis);
  22. Pectinate muscles (musculi pectinati);
  23. Terminal sulcus (sulcus terminalis);
  24. Terminal crest (crista terminalis);
  25. Right atrioventricular orifice (ostium atrioventriculare dextrum);
  26. Left atrioventricular orifice (ostium atrioventriculare sinistrum);
  27. Right fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus dexter);
  28. Left fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus sinister);
  29. Opening of pulmonary trunk (ostium trunci pulmonalis);
  30. Valve of pulmonary trunk: anterior, right and left semilunar cusps (valva trunci pulmonales: valvula semilunaris anterior, dextra et sinistra);
  31. Sinuses of pulmonary trunk (sinus trunci pulmonalis);
  32. Lunula of semilunar casp (lunula valvulae semilunaris);
  33. Nodulus of semilunar casp (nodulus valvulae semilunaris);
  34. Tricuspid valve: anterior, posterior and septal cusps (valva tricuspidalis: cuspis anterior, posterior et septalis);
  35. Bicuspid valve: anterior and posterior (valva bicuspidalis: cuspis anterior et posterior);
  36. Tendinous cords (chordae tendineae);
  37. Papillary muscles (musculi papillares);
  38. Trabeculae carneae (trabeculae carneae);
  39. Openings of pulmonary veins (ostia venarum pulmonalium);
  40. Aortic orifice (ostium aortae);
  41. Aortic valve: posterior, right and left semilunar cusps (valva aortae: valvula semilunaris posterior, dextra et sinistra);
  42. Aortic sinuses (sinus aortae);
  43. Lunula of semilunar casp (lunula valvulae semilunaris);
  44. Nodulus of semilunar casp (nodulus valvulae semilunaris);
  45. Aortic bulb (bulbus aortae);
  46. Superior vena cava (vena cava superior);
  47. Inferior vena cava (vena cava inferior);
  48. Coronary sinus (sinus coronarius);
  49. Pulmonary trunk (truncus pulmonalis);
  50. Pulmonary veins (venae pulmonales);
  51. Right coronary artery (arteria coronaria dextra);
  52. Left coronary artery (arteria coronoria sinistra);
  53. Anterior interventricular branch (ramus interventricularis anterior);
  54. Posterior interventricular branch (ramus interventricularis posterior);
  55. Circumflex branch (ramus circumflexus);
  56. Coronary sinus (sinus coronarius);
  57. Great cardiac vein (vena cordis magna);
  58. Posterior vein of left ventricle (vena posterior ventriculi sinistri);
  59. Oblique vein of left atrium (vena obliqua atrii sinistri);
  60. Middle cardiac vein (vena cordis media;)
  61. Small cardiac vein (vena cordis parva);
  62. Anterior cardiac veins (venae cordis anteriores);
  63. Transverse pericardial sinus (sinus transversus pericardii);
  64. Oblique pericardial sinus (sinus obliquus pericardii);

 

KIDNEY

 

  1. Kidney (ren);
  2. Anterior surface of kidney (facies anterior renis);
  3. Posterior surface of kidney (facies posterior renis);
  4. Superior pole of kidney (extremitas superior renis);
  5. Inferior pole of kidney (extremitas inferior renis);
  6. Lateral border of kidney (margo lateralis renis);
  7. Medial border of kidney (margo medialis renis);
  8. Renal hilum (hilus renalis);
  9. Renal sinus (sinus renalis);
  10. Renal cortex (cortex renalis);
  11. Renal medulla (medulla renalis);
  12. Renal pyramids (pyramides renales);
  13. Renal papilla (papilla renalis);
  14. Renal columns (columnae renales);
  15. Radiate part of cortex (pars radiata);
  16. Convoluted part of cortex (pars convoluta);
  17. Minor calyces (calyces renales minores);
  18. Major calyces (calyces renales majores);
  19. Renal pelvis (pelvis renalis);
  20. Abdominal part of ureter (pars abdominalis);
  21. Pelvic part of ureter (pars pelvica);
  22. Urinary bladder (vesica urinaria);
  23. Fundus of urinary bladder (fundus vesicae);
  24. Body of urinary bladder (corpus vesicae);
  25. Apex of urinary bladder (apex vesicae);
  26. Neck of urinary bladder (cervix vesicae);
  27. Internal urethral orifice (ostium urethrae internum);
  28. Orifice of ureter (ostia ureteres);
  29. External orifice of female urethra (ostium externum urethrae femininum);
  30. External orifice of male urethra (ostium externum urethrae masculinum);
  31. Trigone of urinary bladder (trigonum vesicae);
  32. Uvula of urinary bladder (uvula vesicalis);
  33. Interureteric fold (plica interureterica);
  34. Retroureteric fossa (fossa retroureterica);

 

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

 

  1. Scrotum (scrotum);
  2. Raphe of scrotum (raphe scroti);
  3. Tunica albuginea (tunica albuginea testis);
  4. Medial surface of testis (facies medialis testis);
  5. Lateral surface of testis (facies lateralis testis);
  6. Anterior border of testis (margo anterior testis);
  7. Posterior border of testis (margo posterior testis);
  8. Inferior pole of testis (extremitas inferior testis);
  9. Superior pole of testis (extremitas superior testis);
  10. Spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus);
  11. Lobules of testis (lobuli testis);
  12. Mediastinum of testis (mediastinum testis);
  13. Epididymis (epididymis): head, body, tail;
  14. Sinus of epididymis (sinus epididymis);
  15. Deferent duct (ductus deferens);
  16. Ampulla of deferent duct (ampula ductus deferentis);
  17. Seminal vesicles (vesuculae seminales);
  18. Prostate (prostate): apex, base, anterior and posterior surfaces, right and left lobes, urethral crest, seminal colliculus, prostatic utricle, prostatic sinuses;
  19. Glans penis (glans penis);
  20. Prepuce (preputium penis);
  21. Corona of glans (corona glandis);
  22. Neck of glans (collum glandis);
  23. Frenulum (frenulum preputii);
  24. Root of penis (radix penis);
  25. Dorsum of penis (dorsum penis;
  26. Corpus of penis (corpus penis);
  27. Crus of penis (crus penis);
  28. Corpus cavernosum (corpora cavernosa);
  29. Corpus spongiosum (corpus spongiosum);
  30. Bulb of penis (bulbus penis);
  31. Prostatic part of urethra (pars prostatica urethrae);
  32. Spongiose part of urethra (pars spongiosa urethrae);
  33. External orifice of male urethra (ostium externum urethrae masculinum);
  34. Navicular fossa (fossa navicularis)

 

 

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

 

  1. Fundus of uterus (fundus uteri);
  2. Corpus of uterus (corpus uteri);
  3. Isthmus of uterus (cervix uteri);
  4. Cervix of uterus (cervix uteri): supravaginal and vaginal parts;
  5. External os of uterus (ostium uteri externum);
  6. Internal os of uterus (ostium uteri internum);
  7. Anterior and posterior surfaces of uterus (facies anterior et posterior uteri);
  8. Anterior and posterior lips of the vaginal portion of cervix (labium anterius at posterius);
  9. Vaginal fornices: anterior, posterior, laterals (fornix vaginae);
  10. Round ligament of uterus (ligamentum teres uteri);
  11. Broad ligament of uterus (ligamentum latum uteri);
  12. Endometrium (endometrium);
  13. Myometrium (myometrium);
  14. Perimetrium (perimetrium);
  15. Ovary (ovarium);
  16. Free border of ovary (margo libera ovari);
  17. Mesovarian border of ovary (margo mesovarica ovari);
  18. Uterine extremity of ovary (extremitas uterina);
  19. Tubal extremity of ovary (extremitas tubaria);
  20. Hilum of ovary (hilum ovarii);
  21. Tunica albuginea (tunica albuginea);
  22. Ovarian cortex (cortex ovarii);
  23. Ovarian medulla (medulla ovarii);
  24. Mesovarium (mesovarium);
  25. Suspensory ligament of ovary (ligamentum suspensorium ovari);
  26. Ovarian ligament (ligamentum proprium ovarii);
  27. Uterine tube (tuba uterina);
  28. Mesosalpinx (mesosalpinx);
  29. Uterine part of uterine tube (pars uterina tubae);
  30. Ampulla of uterine tube (ampulla tubae uterinae);
  31. Isthmus of uterine tube (isthmus tubae uterinae);
  32. Infundibulum of uterine tube (infundibulum tubae uterinae);
  33. Fimbriae of uterine tube (fimbriae tubae uterinae);
  34. Uterine orifice of uterine tube (ostium uterinum);
  35. Abdominal orifice of uterine tube (ostium abdominalis);
  36. Labia majora and minora pudendi (labia pudendi minores et majores);
  37. Anterior and posterior commissures of labia majora (comissura labiorum anterior et posterior);
  38. Vaginal vestibule (vestibulum vaginae);
  39. Vaginal orifice (ostium vaginae);
  40. Clitoris (clitoris): glans, corpus, crura.
  41. Prepuce of clitoris (preputium clitoridis);
  42. Frenulum of the clitoris (frenulum clitoridis)

 

PERINEUM

 

  1. Structures of the bones, which bound the perineum.
  2. Urogenital diaphragm (diaphragma urogenitalis)
  3. Pelvic diaphragm (diaphragma pelvis)
  4. Anus (anus)
  5. Vaginal orifice (ostium vaginae)
  6. External urethral orifice (ostim urethrae externum)
  7. Superficial transverse perineal muscle (m. transversus perinei superficialis)
  8. Ischiocavernosus muscle (m. ischiocavernosus)
  9. Bulbospongiosus muscle (m. bulbospongiosus)
  10. Deep transverse perineal muscle (m. transversus perinei profundus)
  11. External urethral sphincter (m. sphincter urethrae externus)
  12. Sphincter ani externus (m. sphincter ani externus)
  13. Levator ani muscle (m. levator ani)
  14. Coccygeal muscle (m. coccygeus)
  15. Ischiorectal fossa (fossa ischiorectalis)

17. Endocrine system

Importance:

The knowledge of endocrine gland anatomy and physiology allows doctors to assess their role in the regulation of homeostasis. Currently, doctors often have to meet with the endocrine pathology. A modern doctor should know topography, anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system well.

 

            Questions:

  1. Give the definition of the endocrine system.
  2. What is the function of the endocrine system?
  3. Give the definition of the hormones.
  4. Give the definition of an endocrine gland.
  5. Classify the hormones.
  6. Describe the properties of the hormones.
  7. Describe the components of the endocrine system.
  8. Describe the principles of the organization of the endocrine system.
  9. Classify the endocrine glands according to the origin.
  10. Describe the components and location of the hypothalamus. What is the hypothalamo-hypophysial system?
  11. Describe the structure of the hypophysis. What are the sizes of the hypophysis?
  12. Describe the relations between the hypothalamus and hypophysis? What hormones of the hypothalamus affect the hypophysis and how do they affect?
  13. Name the hormones of the adenohypophysis and of the neurohypophysis.
  14. Describe the effects of STH. Describe the symptoms of the insufficiency and excess of STH. Why can the pathology of the STH production occur?
  15. Describe the effects of TSH, ACSH, GSH (in males and females).
  16. Describe the effects of the hormones of the heurohypophysis (ADH and oxytocine).
  17. Describe the location of the epiphysis. What are the sizes of the epiphysis? What hormones does it produce? What are their functions?
  18. Describe the location and structure of the thymus. What age changes occur with the thymus? What hormone and BAS does the thymus produce? Describe the function of the thymus.
  19. Describe the location, external structure and normal sizes of the thyroid gland. Describe the internal structure of the thyroid gland.
  20. Which hormones does the thyroid gland produce? Describe their effects.
  21. Describe the symtoms of the disorder of the thyroid gland hormone production in childhood and in adults.
  22. Describe the location and normal sizes of the parathyroid glands. Describe their structure. What hormone do the parathyroid glands produce?
  23. Describe their function and the symptoms of their pathology.
  24. Describe the structure of the endocrine part of the pancreas. What hormones are produced by the cells of the endocrine part of the pancreas?
  25. Describe the symptoms of the insufficient and excessive production of insulin.
  26. Describe the location and sizes of the suprarenal glands. Describe their internal structure.
  27. Which hormones are produced by the cortex of the suprarenal glands and by the medulla? Describe their effects.
  28. Describe the symptoms of the suprarenal gland pathology.
  29. Describe the location of the reproductive glands in males and females. What hormones do they produce?
  30. Describe the effects of the reproductive hormones. Describe the symptoms of the insufficient production of these hormones.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If you found an error, highlight it and press Shift + Enter or click here to inform us.

Рейтинг@Mail.ru

Development ООО "КУРСКИЕ ИНТЕРНЕТ РЕСУРСЫ"