Questions what you should know5

1.The structure of the spinal cord and its meninges.

The formation of spinal nerves.

2. The general structure of the brain: base, sagittal section, topography of the cranial nerves roots on the cerebral base.

3. Rhombencephalon. Fourth ventricle.

4. Mesencephalon. Diencephalon. Third ventricle.

5. Telencephalon. Organization of the cerebral cortex. The rhinencephalon.

6. The lateral ventricles, basal ganglia, white matter of the cerebral hemispheres.

7. Cerebral meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid

8. Ascending conduction tracts

9. Descending conduction tracts

10. СNS Major

1.The structure of the spinal cord and its meninges.

The formation of spinal nerves.

      Importance:

     The diseases of the spinal cord are often observed; they are associated with motor, sensitive and secretory disorders. To make a correct diagnosis, to find the location of pathological process and to choose the correct tactics of treatment it is necessary to know anatomy and topography of the spinal cord and spinal nerves. The understanding of this topic will ease the study of the brain structure and to understand the development of the nervous system.

     Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure of vertebrae, sacrum and the whole vertebral column.
  2. Classification of the nervous system.
  3. The structure of neurons, types of neurons.
  4. The structure of nerve fibers, types of nerve fibers.
  5. The nerve endings, their types.
  6. Definition of reflective activity of CNS. The structure of the reflex arch.

Questions:

  1. Classify the nervous system according to the topographical and anatomical principles  and according to the function.
  2. Describe the structure of neuron. Classify the neurons.
  3. What types of neurons, according to the number of processes, do you know?
  4. What types of neurons, according to the function, do you know?
  5. Give the characteristic of myelinated fibers.
  6. Give the characteristic of non-myelinated fibers.
  7. What is the receptor? Give the classification of receptors.
  8. What is the synapsis? Describe its structure and the laws of its functioning.
  9. Give the classifications of the synapses.
  10. What is the reflex? Classify the reflexes.
  11. What parts does the reflex arch have? Describe them. Describe the differences between the simple and complex reflex arches.
  12. Where is the spinal cord located? At the level of which vertebrae does it end?
  13. Describe the spinal cord: its beginning, its end, its enlargements. Describe the components of the cauda equina and its localization. 
  14. What parts of the spinal cord are distinguished? How many segments does each part include?
  15. What is the segment of the spinal cord? How many segments are in the spinal cord?
  16. Describe the segmental innervation of the body.
  17. How is it accepted to denote the segments of the spinal cord?
  18. Describe the relations (skeletotopy) of the spinal segments to the vertebrae.
  19. Describe the external structure of the spinal cord: its grooves, funiculi. What does the funiculus consist of?
  20. What does white and grey matter consist of?
  21. Describe the relation between white and grey matter in the spinal cord.
  22. Describe the structure and location of  the anterior white commissure.
  23. Describe the central canal of the spinal cord.
  24. Describe grey matter of the spinal cord. What is the horn? What segments of the spinal cord have the lateral horns? What are the columns of the spinal cord?
  25. Give the definition of the nucleus?
  26. Name and describe the nuclei of the posterior horns, lateral horns and anterior horns.
  27. Describe the location of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nuclei in the spinal cord.
  28. The nuclei of which cranial nerves are located in the grey matter of the spinal cord?
  29. What is the spinal ganglion? Describe its location. How many spinal ganglia exist?
  30. Describe the location of the sensory, intermediate and motor neurons of the simple (spinal) reflex arch.
  31. Describe the formation of the spinal nerves: the roots, the trunks of the spinal nerves. Through which sulci of the spinal cord do the spinal nerve roots pass? Through which openings do the spinal nerves leave the vertebral canal? How many pairs of the spinal nerves exist?
  32. Describe the segmental apparatus of the spinal cord (its composition and function).
  33. Describe the conduction apparatus of the spinal cord (its composition and function).
  34. Name and describe the composition (conduction tracts) in the anterior funiculi, lateral funiculi and posterior funiculi.
  35. Name the meninges of the spinal cord in sequence. Describe their features.
  36. Where are the denticulate ligaments located?
  37. Describe the location of the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces.
  38. Where is cerebrospinal fluid located in the spinal cord?

 

Practice:

  1. Medullary cone, conus medullaris;
  2. Filum terminale, filum terminale;
  3. Anterior median fissure, fissura mediana anterior;
  4. Posterior median sulcus, sulcus medianus posterior;
  5. Anterolateral sulcus, sulcus anterolateralis;
  6. Posterolateral sulcus, sulcus posterolateralis;
  7. Posterior root ganglion, or spinal ganglion, ganlion sensorium nervi spinali (ganglion spinale);
  8. Anterior root of the spinal nerve, radix anterior nervi spinalis;
  9. Posterior root of the spinal nerve, radix posterior nervi spinalis;
  10. Trunk of the spinal nerve, truncus nervi spinalis;
  11. Segment of the spinal cord, segmentum medullae spinalis;
  12. Cervical enlargement, intumescentia cervi­calis;
  13. Lumbosacral enlargement, intumescentia lumbosacralis;
  14. Cauda equina, cauda equina;
  15. Central canal, canalis centralis;
  16. Terminal ventricle, ventriculus terminalis;
  17. Grey matter of the spinal cord, substantia grisea;
  18. White matter of the spinal cord, substantia grisea;
  19. Anterior horn, cornu anterius;
  20. Posterior horn, cornu posterius;
  21. Lateral horn, cornu laterale;
  22. Grey columns, columnae griseae: posterior columns, columnae posteriores; lateral columns, columnae laterales; anterior columns, columnae anteriores;
  23. Anterior white commissure, comissura alba anterior;
  24. Anterior funiculus, funiculus anterior;
  25. Lateral funiculus, funiculus lateralis;
  26. Posterior funiculus, funiculus posterior;

 To print the diagram for the topic click here White matter of spinal cord; Grey matter of spinal cord and reflex arch

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

2. The general organization of the brain: base, sagittal section, topography of the cranial nerve roots on the cerebral base.

               Importance:

                 On the cerebral base  there are important functional brain parts. Here is one of the important endocrine gland, the hypophysis. Its hormones are involved in the regulation of body growth, vascular tone, regulation of the activity of other endocrine glands and internal body functions.

           At the cerebral base is the medulla oblongata which contains the vital centers of respiration and cardiac activity. Here are the roots of the 12 cranial nerves; the damage to them cause the disorder of the sensory organs (olfactory, visual, auditory), and sensory and motor innervation of the head. To know the general brain organization is important for the study of the brain parts.

     Questions:

  1. Classify the brain according to the development.
  2. Which parts of the brain are included into the rhombencephalon? What ventricle does it contain?
  3. Describe the parts of the brain (rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, telencephalon); what cavities does each part contain?
  4. Name the cranial nerves (from I to XII pairs).
  5. What parts does the brainstem include?
  6. Describe the places where the cranial nerves appear on the cerebral base.

             The task: Print the diagram Ventral surface of brain and indicate here the cranial nerves, writing their numbers and names. Also indicate the structures visible on the cerebral base.

Practice:

  1. The roots of the I cranial nerve (nervus olfactorius)
  2. The roots of the II cranial nerve (nervus opticus)
  3. The roots of the III cranial nerve (nervus oculomotorius)
  4. The roots of the IV cranial nerve (nervus trochlearis)
  5. The roots of the V cranial nerve (nervus trigeminus)
  6. The roots of the VI cranial nerve (nervus abducens)
  7. The roots of the VII cranial nerve (nervus facialis)
  8. The roots of the VIII cranial nerve (nervus vestibulocochlearis).
  9. The roots of the IX cranial nerve (nervus glossopharyngeus)
  10. The roots of the X cranial nerve (nervus vagus)
  11. The roots of the XI cranial nerve (nervus accessorius)
  12. The roots of the XII cranial nerve (nervus hypoglossus)
  13. Olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius)
  14. Olfactory tract (tractus olfactorius)
  15. Olfactory trigone (trigonum olfactorium)
  16. Optic chiasm (chiasma opticum)
  17. Tuber cinereum (tuber cinereum)
  18. Infundibulum (infundibulum)
  19. Hypophysis (hypophysis)
  20. Mamillary bodies (corpora mamillaria)
  21. Anterior perforated substance (substantia perforata anterior)
  22. Cerebral peduncles (pedunculi crebri) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  23. Interpeduncular fossa (fossa interpduncularis)
  24. Posterior perforated substance (substantia perforata posterior)
  25. Pons (pons) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  26. Cerebellum (cerebellum) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  27. Brain stem (truncus cerebri) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  28. Cerebral hemisphere (hemispheria cerebri) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  29. Longitudinal cerebral fissure (fissura longitudinalis cerebri)
  30. Transverse cerebral fissure (fissura transversa cerebri)
  31. Corpus callosum (corpus callosum)
  32. Rhombencephalon (rhombencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  33. Medulla oblongata (medulla oblongata) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  34. Metencephalon (metencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  35. Mesencephalon (mesencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  36. Diencephalon (diencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  37. Telencephalon (telencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)

 

3.Rhombencephalon. Fourth ventricle.

   Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure of the spinal cord: external structure, and the structure of the white and grey matter.
  2. The structure of the posterior cranial fossa: foramen magnum, clivus, inner aspect of the occipital bone.

Questions:

  1. Classify the brain according to the development.
  2. Describe the parts of the brain (rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, telencephalon); what cavities does each part contain?
  3. What parts does the brainstem include?
  4. What parts does the isthmus rhombencephali involve?
  5. At which level is the spinal cord continuous with the medulla oblongata?
  6. Where does the medulla oblongata lie in the skull?
  7. Describe the external structure of the medulla oblongata: grooves and funiculi which can be found on its ventral and dorsal surfaces.
  8. Which cranial nerves emerge from the medulla oblongata? What grooves of the medulla oblongata do the roots of these cranial nerves pass through?
  9. Describe the arrangement of grey matter relatively to white matter in the medulla oblongata.
  10. Give the definition of the nucleus. What kinds of cell bodies comprise sensory nuclei, parasympathethic, motor?
  11. Describe the nuclei of the medulla oblongata. How can they be grouped? Describe their position.
  12. Name the nuclei of the cranial nerves emerging from the medulla oblongata. Which of them are sensory (motor, parasympathetic)?
  13. Describe white matter of the medulla oblongata: name and describe the conduction tracts passing through the anterior, lateral and posterior funiculi of the medulla oblongata. What is the decussation of the medial lemniscus and pyramidal decussation?
  14. Describe the connections of the medulla oblongata`s nuclei with other parts of the brain and with the spinal cord.
  15. Describe the position of the pons and its external structure.
  16. Which cranial nerves emerge from the pons? Describe the position of these cranial nerve roots relatively to the pons.
  17. Describe the arrangement of grey matter relatively to white matter in the pons.
  18. Describe the nuclei of the pons. How can they be grouped? Describe their position.
  19. Name the nuclei of the cranial nerves emerging from the pons. Which of them are sensory (motor, parasympathetic)?
  20. Describe white matter of the pons: name and describe the conduction tracts passing through the pons.
  21. Give the definition of the medial lemniscus, trigeminal lemniscus, lateral lemnisculs and spinal lemniscus.
  22. Describe the connections of the pons`s nuclei with other parts of the central nervous system.
  23. Describe the position of the cerebellum and its external structure.
  24. Give the definition of the lamellae, folia and lobules of the cerebellum.
  25. Describe the arrangement of grey matter relatively to white matter in the cerebellum.
  26. Describe the nuclei of the cerebellum.
  27. Describe the conduction tracts which form the middle, superior and inferior peduncles of the cerebellum.
  28. Describe the connections of the cerebellum with other parts of the brain and with the spinal cord.
  29. What part of the brain includes the fourth ventricle?
  30. Describe the floor of the fourth ventricle.
  31. What parts of the cerebellum form the fourth ventricle`s roof?
  32. Describe the communications of the fourth ventricle in the caudal and rostral directions.
  33. Describe the structure of the choroid plexus. What is it function? Describe the location of the choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle.
  34. What do the lateral (Luschka`s foramen) and median (Magendie`s foramen) apertures communicate the fourth ventricle with? Describe the location of the foramina.
  35. What parts of the brain form the rhomboid fossa?
  36. Describe the external structure of the rhomboid fossa.
  37. The nuclei of which cranial nerves project below  and above the medullary striae?
  38. The nuclei of which cranial nerves occupy the trigones of hypoglossal and vagus nerves? Name these nuclei. What types do they belong to?
  39. The nuclei of which cranial nerves occupy the vestibular areas? What types do they belong to?
  40. How is the facial colliculus formed?
  41. How are medullary striae formed?
  42. Which nuclei (according to the type) are within the medial eminence; which nuclei are outside the medial eminence?
  43. Which nuclei prolong into the cervical segments of the spinal cord?

Practice:

  1. Rhombencephalon (rhombencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  2. Medulla oblongata (medulla oblongata) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  3. Metencephalon (metencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  4. Mesencephalon (mesencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  5. Diencephalon (diencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)
  6. Telencephalon (telencephalon) (in the whole brain and in the sagittal section)

Medulla oblongata:

  1. Ventral, dorsal and lateral surfaces;
  2. Anterior median fissure, fissura mediana anterior;
  3. Posterior median sulcus, sulcus medianus posterior;
  4. Pyramid, pyramis medullae oblongatae;
  5. Pyramidal decussation, decussatio pyramidum;
  6. Gracile fasciculus, fasciculus gracilis;
  7. Cuneate fasciculus, fasciculus cuneatus;
  8. Olive, oliva;
  9. Anterolateral sulcus, sulcus anterolateralis,
  10. Posterolateral sulcus, sulcus posterolateralis,
  11. Roots of the accessory, vagus, glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves
  12. Gracile tubercle, tuberculum gracile;
  13. Cuneate tubercles, tuberculum cuneatum;

Pons

  1. Ventral part, pars ventralis (basilar part, pars basilaris);
  2. Dorsal part, pars dorsalis (tegmentum, tegmentum pontis);
  3. Trapezoid body, corpus trapezoideum;
  4. Basilar sulcus, sulcus basilaris,
  5. Roots of the abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear and trigeminal nerves;
  6. Medullopontine sulcus, sulcus bulbopontinus;
  7. Cerebellopontine angle, angulus pontocerebellaris;

Cerebellum:

  1. Superior cerebellar peduncles (pedunculi cerebellares supriores)
  2. Middle cerebellar peduncles (pedunculi cerebellares medii)
  3. Inferior cerebellar peduncles (pedunculi cerebellares inferiores)
  4. Cerbellar hemisphere (hemispheria cerebelli)
  5. Vallecula cerebelli
  6. Superior surface (facies superior cerebelli)
  7. Inferior surface (facies inferior cerebelli)
  8. Vermis (vermis cerebelli)
  9. Folia of cerebellum (folia cerebelli)
  10. Lobules of cerbellum (lobuli cerebelli)
  11. Horizontal fissure (fissura horizontalis)
  12. Flocculus (flocculus)
  13. Nodulus (nodulus)
  14. Superior medullary velum (velum medullare superius)
  15. Inferior medullary velum (velum medullare inferius)
  16. Fourth ventricle (ventriculus quartus)
  17. Tela choroidea
  18. Isthmus of rhombencephalon (isthmus rhombencephali)
  19. Trigone of lemniscus (trigonum lemnisci)
  20. Rhomboid fossa (on the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata and pons, and on the sagittal section of the brain) (fossa rhomboidea):
  21. Median sulcus (sulcus medianus)
  22. Medial eminence (eminentia medialis)
  23. Lateral recesses (recessus lateralis)
  24. Trigone of hypoglossal nerve (trigonum nervi hypolossi)
  25. Trigone of vagus nerve (trigonum nervi vagi)
  26. Facial colliculus (colliculus facialis)
  27. Medullary striae (striae medullares)

 

Complete the tables:

Cranial nerves coming out from the medulla oblongata, and their nuclei

The number and name of the cranial nerves Nuclei of cranial nerves and their names
Motor Sensory Vegetative

(parasympathetic)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cranial nerves coming out from the pons, and their nuclei

 

The number and name of the cranial nerves Nuclei of cranial nerves and their names
Motor Sensory Vegetative

(parasympathetic)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To watch the video for this topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagrams for the topic click here White matter of medulla oblongata; Grey matter of medulla oblongata; White matter of pons; Grey matter of pons; Grey matter of cerebellum; Rhomboid fossa

4. Mesencephalon. Diencephalon. Third ventricle.

     Importance:

      To know this topic is necessary to study of the subsequent anatomy topics about the central and peripheral nervous systems: ascending conduction tracts, subcortical vegetative centers, subcortical olfactory centers, the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid.

    The diencephalon contains the important centers and ascending conduction tracts (subcortical centers of all kinds of sensation, center of water and salt metabolism, center controlling the endocrine gland functioning etc); to know this is important for the diagnostics of brain pathology.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The names and numbers of the cranial nerves, and names of their nuclei.
  2. The structure of the rhombencephalon and forth ventricle.

Complete the table:

Cranial nerves coming out from the mesencephalon, and their nuclei

 

The number and name of the cranial nerves Nuclei of cranial nerves and their names
Motor Sensory Vegetative

(parasympathetic)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questions:

  1. Describe the position of mesencephalon. What brain structures surround the midbrain?
  2. Describe the ventral and dorsal midbrain surfaces.
  3. What is the trigone of lemnisci? Why is it distinguished? What structures bound it?
  4. What parts are distinguished in the mesencephalon? Describe each of them.
  5. What cavity is inside the mesencephalon?
  6. Describe the communications of the cerebral aqueduct.
  7. Which cranial nerves arise from the mesencephalon?
  8. Describe the arrangement of grey matter relatively to white matter in the midbrain.
  9. Describe the nuclei in midbrain grey matter. How can they be grouped? Describe their position.
  10. Name the nuclei of the cranial nerves emerging from the medulla oblongata. Which of them are sensory (motor, parasympathetic)?
  11. What is the function of the red nucleus and substantia nigra?
  12. Which parts of the brain, known for you, belong to extrapyramidal system? What are the differences between the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems?
  13. What specific nuclei of the reticular formation are in the mesencephalon? What tracts start from them? Describe their function.
  14. What is the function of the nuclei of the superior and inferior colliculi?
  15. Describe white matter of the mesencephalon (tracts which transit the mesencephalon, and connect mesencephalon with other parts of the CNS). What tracts pass through the base of the cerebral peduncles; what tracts pass through the midbrain tegmentum?
  16. Describe the position of the diencephalon. What brain structures surround the diencephalon?
  17. What parts of the diencephalon do you know? Describe the boundaries between them.
  18. Describe the external structure of the thalamus.
  19. Describe the nuclei of the thalamus, their function and their connections with other parts of the CNS.
  20. What parts does the epithalamus consist of? Describe the function of each part.
  21. What parts does the metathalamus include?
  22. Describe the function of the nuclei in the medial and lateral geniculate bodies.
  23. What structures form the hypothalamus? What parts of the hypothalamus do you know?
  24. Describe the nuclei of the hypothalamus, their functions and their effect on the hypophysis.
  25. Describe the function of the hypophysis.
  26. Describe the structure of the anterior, posterior, lateral, middle and inferior walls of the III ventricle.
  27. Describe the communications of the III ventricle.

Practice:

Mesencephalon (on the whole brain and on the sections of the brain):

  1. Cerebral peduncles (on the whole brain and on the sagittal section) (pedunculi cerebri)
  2. Tectum of mesencephalon (tectum mesencephali)
  3. Substantia nigra (substantia nigra)
  4. Tegmentum of midbrain (tegmentum mesencephali)
  5. Base of mesencephalon (basis mesencephali)
  6. Interpeduncular fossa (fossa interpenduncularis)
  7. Posterior perforated substance (substantia perforata posterior)
  8. Superior colliculi (colliculi superiors)
  9. Inferior colliculi (colliculi inferiors)
  10. Brachia of superior and inferior colliculi (brachia colliculi superioris et inferioris)
  11. Trigone of lemnisci (trigonum lemnisci)
  12. Cerebral aqueduct (aqueductus cerebri)

Diencephalon:

  1. Thalamus (thalamus) (on the frontal, sagittal and horizontal sections of brain) : medial surface, dorsal surface
  2. Interthalamic adhesion (adhesio interthalamica)
  3. Anterior tubercle (tuberculum anterius thalami)
  4. Pulvinar (pulvinar thalami)
  5. Stria medullaris (stria medullaris thalami)
  6. Epithalamus (epithalamus)
  7. Habenular trigone (trigonum habenulae)
  8. Habenulae (habenulae)
  9. Habenular comissure (comissura habenularum)
  10. Epiphysis (glandula pinealis)
  11. Metathalamus (metathalamus)
  12. Medial geniculate body (corpus geniculatum mediale)
  13. Lateral geniculate body (corpus geniculatum laterale)
  14. Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)
  15. Mamillary bodies (corpora mamillaria)
  16. Tuber cinereum (tuber cinereum)
  17. Infundibulum (infundibulum)
  18. Hypophisis (hypophisis)
  19. Optic chiasma (chiasma opticus)
  20. Optic tract (tractus opticus)
  21. Supraoptic recess (recessus supra-opticus)
  22. Infundibular recess (recessus infundibuli)
  23. Pineal recess (recessus pinealis)
  24. Lamina terminalis (lamina terminalis)
  25. III ventricle (on the sagittal and horizontal sections of the brain) (ventriculus tertius)
  26. Fornix (fornix)
  27. Column of fornix (columnae fornicis)
  28. Anterior cerebral comissure (comissura cerebri anterior)
  29. Posterior cerebral comissure (comissura cerebri posterior)
  30. Choroid plexus (plexus choroideus)
  31. Intervenricular opening (foramen of Monro)

To watch the video for this topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Grey matter of mesencephalon; White matter of mesencephalon; Thalamic nuclei, epithalamus, tectum of mesencephalon, trigone of lemniscus; Walls of third ventricle

 

5. Telencephalon. Organization of the cerebral cortex. The rhinencephalon.

Importance:

                   In the diseases of the central nervous system or the brain trauma a doctor defines the affected area of the cerebral cortex, choosing the place of surgical intervention.

                   To make a correct diagnosis and to choose a correct surgical and conservative treatment a doctor should know the anatomy of the cerebral hemispheres: sulci, gyri and localization of functions.

Questions:

  1. Name the parts of the telencephalon.
  2. What lobes do the cerebral hemispheres have? Describe the boundaries of the lobes. Where is the insula located?
  3. Describe the sulci and gyri of the superolateral cerebral surface.
  4. Describe the sulci and gyri of the medial cerebral surface.
  5. Name the components of the fornicate gyrus? What is its function?
  6. Describe the sulci and gyri of the inferior cerebral surface.
  7. Give the definition of the cerebral cortex. What is its thickness?
  8. Give the characteristic of the paleocortex. What parts does it consist of?
  9. Give the characteristic of the archicortex. What parts does it include?
  10. Give the characteristic of the neocortex. What parts does it include?
  11. Name the layers of the cerebral cortex. Describe the features of each layer.
  12. Give the definition of the cortical column.
  13. Give the definition of myeloarchitectonics, cytoarchitectonics and glioarchitectonics.
  14. Give the definition of the nerve centre. Give the definition of the projection and association nerve centres (areas). What are the differences between them?
  15. Name and describe the projection cortical centres.
  16. Name and describe the association cortical centres. Which cortical centers are unilateral? Which cortical centers have opposite location?
  17. Describe the symptoms in damage to the cortical areas.
  18. Why is the rhinencephalon distinguished? Name the components of its peripheral and central parts.

The task:

  1. Print the diagrams of the brain and indicate, using the different colors, the gyri, and write the names of the sulci and gyri.
  2. In the diagrams of the brain indicate the localization of functions in the cortex. 

Practice:

  1. Superolateral surface of cerebral hemisphere (facies superolateralis hemispherii cerebri)
  2. Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere (facies medialis hemispherii cerebri)
  3. Inferior surface of cerebral hemisphere (facies inferior hemispherii cerebri)
  4. Lateral sulcus (sulcus lateralis)
  5. Central sulcus (sulcus centralis)
  6. Frontal lobe (lobus frontalis)
  7. Parietal lobe (lobus parietalis)
  8. Occipital lobe (lobus occipitalis)
  9. Temporal lobe (lobus temporalis)
  10. Insula (insula)

 

SUPEROLATERAL  SURFACE OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE:

Frontal lobe:

  1. Precentral sulcus (sulcus precentralis)
  2. Superior frontal sulcus (sulcus frontalis superior)
  3. Inferior frontal sulcus (sulcus frontalis inferior)
  4. Precentral gyrus (gyrus precentralis)
  5. Superior frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis superior)
  6. Middle frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis medius)
  7. Inferior frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis inferior)
  8. Opercular part (pars opercularis)
  9. Triangular part (pars triangularis)
  10. Orbital part (pars orbitalis)

Parietal lobe:

  1. Postcentral sulcus (sulcus postcentralis)
  2. Intraparietal sulcus (sulcus intraparietalis)
  3. Postcentral gyrus (gyrus postcentralis)
  4. Superior parietal lobule (lobulus parietalis superior)
  5. Inferior parietal lobule (lobulus parietalis inferior)
  6. Supramarginal gyrus (gyrus supramarginalis)
  7. Angular gyrus (gyrus angularis)

Occipital lobe:

  1. Transverse occipital sulcus (sulcus occipitalis transversus)
  2. Occipital gyri (gyri occipitales)

Temporal lobe:

  1. Superior temporal sulcus (sulcus temporalis superior)
  2. Inferior temporal sulcus (sulcus temporalis inferior)
  3. Superior temporal gyrus (gyrus temporalis superior)
  4. Middle temporal gyrus (gyrus temporalis medius)
  5. Inferior temporal gyrus (gyrus temporalis inferior)

 

MIDDLE  SURFACE OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE:

  1. Sulcus of corpus callosum (sulcus corporis callosi)
  2. Hippocampal sulcus (sulcus hippocampi)
  3. Cingulate sulcus (sulcus cinguli)
  4. Paracentral sulcus (sulcus paracentralis)
  5. Parietoocipital sulcus (sulcus parietooccipitalis)
  6. Calcarine sulcus (sulcus calcarinus)
  7. Paracentral lobule (lobulus paracentralis)
  8. Precuneus (precuneus)
  9. Cuneus (cuneus)
  10. Cingulate gyrus (gyrus cinguli)
  11. Isthmus of cingulate gyrus (isthmus gyri cinguli)
  12. Parahippocampal gyrus (gyrus parahippocampalis)
  13. Uncus (uncus)
  14. Fornicate gyrus (gyrus fornicatus)

 

    INFERIOR  SURFACE OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE:

  1. Olfactory sulcus (sulcus olfactorius)
  2. Straight gyrus (gyrus rectus)
  3. Orbital sulci (sulci orbitales)
  4. Orbital gyri (gyri orbitales)
  5. Occipitotemporal sulcus (sulcus occipitotemporalis)
  6. Collateral sulcus (sulcus collateralis)
  7. Rhinal sulcus (sulcus rhinalis)
  8. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus (gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis)
  9. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus (gyrus occipitotemporalis medialis)
  10. Lingual gyrus (gyrus lingualis)

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Superolateral surface of cerebral hemispheres; Medial surface of cerebral hemispheres; Inferior surface of cerebral hemispheres;Cortical areas (superolateral surface of cerebral hemispheres); Cortical areas (medial surface of cerebral hemispheres) 

See the table Cortical areas

 

6. The lateral ventricles, basal ganglia and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. 

 

              Importance:

                The active development of neurosurgery, neurophysiology and the advances in the study of the brain ultrastructure  allow doctors to diagnose and treat both functional and morphological changes in central nervous system (psychoses, brain tumors, cortical strokes etc). All this requires a good knowledge of the telencephalon anatomy.

 

Before you start to study this topic you need to know:

  1. The cerebral lobes, gyri and sulci;
  2. The internal organization of the brainsteam

Questions:

  1. Name the basal nuclei and describe their location.
  2. Describe the structure of the caudate nucleus. Name the components of the lentiform nucleus.
  3. Name the components of  the corpus striatum.
  4. Give the definition of the strio-pallidar system. Describe the relations between the striatum and pallidum.
  5. Name all the components of extrapyramidal system and describe its function.
  6. Describe the functions of the claustrum and corpus amigdaloideum.
  7. Name all the components of the limbic system and describe its function.
  8. Describe the parts, location and function of the fornix.
  9. Describe the relations between the fornix and hippocampus, fornix and mamillary bodies, fornix and anterior cerebral commissure.
  10. Describe the location of the lateral ventricles.
  11. Name the parts of the lateral ventricle.
  12. What brain structures form the upper wall and the floor of the central part?
  13. What brain structures form the medial, lateral, anterior, superior and inferior walls of the anterior horns?
  14. What brain structures form the superior, lateral, medial and inferior walls of the posterior horns?
  15. What brain structures form the superior, lateral, medial and inferior walls of the inferior horns?
  16. Which ventricle do the lateral ventricles communicate with? Name the openings which connect lateral ventricles with others. How are these openings bounded?
  17. What types of the cerebral white matter fibers do you know?
  18. Give the definition of the association fibers. Describe the fascicles of the association fibers, their direction and function. To where do they transmit the nerve impulses?
  19. Give the definition of the commissural fibers. Name and describe the commissures of the brain, their direction and function. To where do they transmit the nerve impulses?
  20. Give the definition of the projection fibers. Describe their direction. To where do they transmit the nerve impulses?
  21. Describe the location and boundaries of the internal, external and extreme capsules.
  22. Give the definition  of the corona radiata.

 Practice:

  1. Caudate nucleus (nucleus caudatus): head, body, tail
  2. Lentiform nucleus (nucleus lentiformis)
  3. Putamen (putamen)
  4. Globus pallidus  (globus pallidus)
  5. Claustrum (claustrum)
  6. Corpus amigdaloideum (corpus amigdaloideum)
  7. Internal  capsule (capsula interna)
  8. Genu of internal capsule (genu capsulae internae)
  9. Anterior limb of internal capsule (crus anterius)
  10. Posterior limb of internal capsule (crus posterius)
  11. External capsule (capsula externa)
  12. Extreme capsule (capsula extrema)
  13. Anterior cerebral commissure (commissura cerebri anterior)
  14. Posterior cerebral commissure (commissura cerebri posterior)
  15. Habenular commissure (commissura habenularum)
  16. Interthalamic adhesion (adhesion interthalamica)
  17. Lateral ventricles (ventriculi laterales):
  18. Central part (pars centralis)
  19. Anterior horns (cornua anteriores)
  20. Posterior horns (cornua posteriores)
  21. Inferior horns (cornua inferiores)
  22. Choroid plexus (plexus choroideus)
  23. Septum pellucudum (septum pellucudum)
  24. Collateral eminence (eminentia collateralis)
  25. Calcarine spur (calcar avis)
  26. Hippocampus (hippocampus)
  27. Corpus callosum (corpus callosum):
  28. Genu (genu corporis callosi)
  29. Trunk (truncus corporis callosi)
  30. Splenium (splenium corporis callosi)
  31. Rostrum (rostrum corporis callosi)
  32. Fornix (fornix):
  33. Columns (columnae fornicis)
  34. Body (corpus fornicis)
  35. Crura (crura fornicis)
  36. Comissure (comissura fornicis)

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagrams for the topic click here  Basal nuclei; Lateral ventricles 

 

7. Cerebral meninges . Cerebrospinal fluid.

 

      Importance:

The cerebral meninges contribute to the normal functioning of the brain. They create a mechanical barrier for the brain and perform a trophic function, providing the constancy of the brain`s internal environment. The circulation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid depends on the state of the cerebral meninges.

The meninges are often involved in cerebral pathological processes.

So to understand pathogenesis of cerebral diseases, to make correct diagnosis and to choose proper treatment it is important to know the structure of the cerebral meninges and circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid. 

 

    Before you start to study  the topic you need to know:

    1. Names and location of the grooves for the sinuses on the skull bones.

     2. Location and structure of the cerebral ventricles.

     Questions:

  1. Name the cerebral meninges in sequence.
  2. What spaces are formed between the cerebral meninges?
  3. Describe the differences between pia mater, arachnoidea and dura mater.
  4. What folds (processes) does the dura mater form?
  5. Give the definition of the dural sinuses and describe their function.
  6. What are the differences between the dural sinuses and usual veins?
  7. The merger of which sinuses forms the confluens sinuum?
  8. Name all the dural sinuses and describe how venous blood passes through the sinuses (the direction of the blood flow and connections between sinuses).
  9. Where does the venous blood of sinuses flow out?
  10. Describe the features of the arachoidea. Describe the arachnoid granulations and their function.
  11. What intermeningeal space has cisterns? Why the cisterns are formed? Name the cisterns and describe their location and parctical importance.
  12. What spaces contain cerebrospinal fluid?
  13. What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid?
  14. Where and how is the cerebrospinal fluid produced?
  15. Give the definition of the blood-brain barrier; describe its function.
  16. Where is the cerebrospinal fluid absorbed?
  17. Describe the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  18. What is the total volume of the cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebral ventricles, in the central canal of the spinal cord, in the subarachnoid and subdural spaces of the brain and the spinal cord? What is the volume of the cerebrospinal fluid in the intermeningeal spaces and cerebral ventricles separatly?
  19. What is the volume of the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricles, III, IV, cerebral aqueduct separtly?
  20. What cistern is used for puncture? What volume of the cerebrospinal fluid is possible to take for test without negative effect on a patient?

     The task:

 Print the diagram Subarachnoid cisterns, indicate the cisterns, and write their names.

     Practice:

  1. Dura mater (dura mater encephali)
  2. Pia mater (pia mater encephali)
  3. Falx cerebri (falx cerebri)
  4. Tentorium cerebelli (tentorium cerebelli)
  5. Falx cerebelli (falx cerebelli)
  6. Sellar diaphragm (diaphragma sellae)
  7. Transverse sinus (sinus transversus)
  8. Superior sagittal sinus (sinus sagittalis superior)
  9. Occipital sinus (sinus occipitalis)
  10. Straight sinus (sinus rectus)
  11. Confluence of sinuses (confluens sinuum)
  12. Cavernous sinus (sinus cavernosus)
  13. Intercavernous sinus (sinus intercavernosus)
  14. Superior petrosal sinus (sinus petrosus superior)
  15. Inferior petrosal sinus (sinus petrosus inferior)
  16. Basilar plexus (plexus basilaris)

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Subarachnoid cisterns

 

8. Ascending conduction tracts

      Importance:

       One of the severe complications of the injuries of the central nervous system is the discoordination of both motor and sensory body functions. To know the anatomy of conduction tracts is necessary for the diagnostics and proper treatment.

 

      Before the study of the topic you should know:

  1. The structure of reflex arch;
  2. The organization of white and grey matter in the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebral hemispheres.
  3. The cerebral projection centers.

 

Questions (see the table Conduction tracts):

  1. Give the definition of the conduction tracts.
  2. What is the function of the afferent conduction tracts?
  3. What types of afferent tracts, according to the function, do you know?
  4. Describe the particularities of the course of the afferent tracts in the spinal cord.
  5. What are the structural differences between the tracts of the exteroceptive senation from the skin of the body and from the skin of the face and head?
  6. What are the functional differences between the tracts of the deep sensation to the brain and to the cerebellum?
  7. How many neurons may be included into an ascending conduction tract?
  8. Where may the sensory (first) neurons of the ascending conduction tracts be located?
  9. Where may the second neurons of the ascending conduction tracts be located?
  10. Where are the third neurons of the ascending conduction tracts located?
  11. Where is the beginning of the ascending conduction tracts?
  12. Where may the ascending conduction tracts end?
  13. Why the tracts are usually decussated?
  14. The ends of which tracts are in the opposite side?
  15. Give the definition of the lemniscus spinalis, lemniscus medialis, lemniscus trigeminalis, decussatio lemniscorum.
  16. Describe the following afferent tracts using the plan of description, given below:

 

      Afferent tracts:

  1. Gangliospinothalamocortical tract.
  2. Ganglionucleothalamocortical tract.
  3. Gangliobulbothalamocortical tract.
  4. Anterior spinocerebral tract.
  5. Posterior spinocerebral tract.

 

     The plan of description of extero- and proprioceptive tracts:

  1. The function of the tract;
  2. The beginning of tract;
  3. The number and location of neurons;
  4. The level of the decussation of tract fibers (if the tract has a decussation);
  5. Position of tract fibers in the spinal cord;
  6. Position of tract fibers in the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain and other parts of the brain;
  7. The end of tract.

 To print the diagrams for the topic click here Gangliospinothalamic tract; Gangliobulbothalamic tract; Ganglionucleothalamic tract; Anterior spinocerebellar tract; Posterior spinocerebellar tract

 

9. Descending conduction tracts

                Importance:

                  In clinical practice the diseases and injuries of the brain and spinal cord are often observed; they may be accompanied by paresis and paralysis of skeletal muscles of the trunk and head, by disorders of the balance and coordination of movements.

                  To make correct diagnosis, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms and to treat properly, a doctor need to know the anatomy of the descending conduction tracts arising from the cerebral cortex and from the parts of the extrapyramidal system.

 

                Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The organization, components and function of extrapyramidal system.
  2. The structure of reflex arch;
  3. The organization of  white and grey matter in the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebral hemispheres.
  4. The cerebral projection centers .

 

     Questions (see the table Conduction tracts):

  1. Give the definition of the efferent conduction tracts.
  2. What is the function of the efferent conduction tracts?
  3. What types of efferent tracts, according to the function, do you know?
  4. Describe the particularities of the course of the efferent tracts in the spinal cord.
  5. What are the structural differences between the pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts?
  6. What are the functional differences between the pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts?
  7. Name the pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts.
  8. How many neurons may be included into a descending conducting tract?
  9. Where may the sensory (first) neurons of the descending conduction tracts be located?
  10. Where may the second neurons of the descending conduction tracts be located?
  11. Where is the beginning of the descending conduction tracts?
  12. Where is the end of the descending conduction tracts?
  13. Why the tracts are usually decussated?
  14. The ends of which tracts are in the opposite side?
  15. Describe the following efferent tracts using the plan of description, given below:

 

               Efferent tracts:

  1. Corticospinal tract.
  2. Corticonuclear tract.
  3. Tectospinal tract.
  4. Cerebellorubrospinal tract.
  5. Vestibulospinal tract.
  6. Olivospinal tract.
  7. Reticulospinal tract.

                The plan of description of efferent tracts:

  1. The function of the tract;
  2. The beginning of tract;
  3. The number and location of neurons;
  4. The level of the decussation of tract fibers;
  5. Position of tract fibers in the midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata;
  6. Position of tract fibers in the spinal cord;
  7. The end of tract.

  To print the diagrams for the topic click here Corticospinal tract; Tectospinal tract; Rubrospinal tract; Reticulospinal tract; Vestibulospinal tract; Olivospinal tract

 10. CNS Major 

Questions for the major CNS

  1. Describe the external structure of the spinal cord (beginning, end, location, segments, sulci, funiculi etc).
  2. Describe the internal structure of the spinal cord (grey matter horns, groups of the nuclei, their function).
  3. Describe the internal structure of the spinal cord (white matter: the components of the spinal funiculi).
  4. Describe the segmental and conduction spinal apparatuses.
  5. Describe the simple reflex arch.
  6. Give the classification of the brain parts. What cavities does each of the brain parts contain? What are the components of the brainstem?
  7. Describe the external structure of the medulla oblongata. What cranial nerves arise from it?
  8. Describe the internal structure of the medulla oblongata (groups of the nuclei, their function, the connections of the medulla with other brain parts).
  9. Describe the external structure of the pons. What cranial nerves arise from it?
  10. Describe the internal structure of the pons (groups of the nuclei, their function, the connections of the pons with other brain parts).
  11. Describe the external structure of the cerebellum.
  12. Describe the internal structure of the cerebellum (the nuclei, their function, the connections of the cerebellum with other brain parts).
  13. Describe the IV ventricle: walls, communications.
  14. Describe the external structure of the mesencephalon. What cranial nerves arise from it?
  15. Describe the internal structure of the mesencephalon (groups of the nuclei, their function, the connections of the mesencephalon with other brain parts).
  16. Name the parts of the diencephalon. Describe the location, external structure and the nuclei of the thalamus.
  17. Describe the metathalamus, its location, components and function.
  18. Describe the epithalamus, its location, components and function.
  19. Describe the hypothalamus, its location, components and function.
  20. Describe the III ventricle: walls, communications.
  21. What lobes does the telencephalon have? Describe the sulci and gyri of the cerebral cortex.
  22. Describe the cortical areas (location and function).
  23. Describe the basal nuclei of the telencephalon: names, location, function.
  24. Describe white matter of the telencephalon. What groups of white matter fibers are distinguished in the telencephalon?
  25. Name and describe the association white matter fasciculi.
  26. Name and describe the location and function of the brain commissures. Describe the parts of the corpus callosum.
  27. Describe the white matter capsules (internal, external, extreme).
  28. Describe the lateral ventricles: their parts, location. What brain structures bound the parts of the lateral ventricles?
  29. Describe the parts of the rhinencephalon.
  30. Name the components of the limbic system. Describe its function.
  31. Name the components of the extrapyramidal system. Describe its function.
  32. Give the definition of the reticular formation. Describe its location and function.
  33. Name the meninges of the spinal cord and brain, describe them. Name the intermeningeal spaces. Describe their content. What processes does the dura mater give? Give the definition of the dural sinuses. Describe the location of sinuses.
  34. Name and describe the subarachnoid cisterns.
  35. Describe the structure of the tela choroidea. Where is it located? Describe the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (its production, passage, absorption, function, normal volume).
  36. Give the definition of the afferent tracts. What afferent tract do you know?
  37. Describe the tract of the exteroceptive sensation (beginning, end, location of the neurons, position in the spinal cord, brainstem, telencephalon, decussations, function).
  38. Describe the tract of the proprioceptive sensation (to the cerebellum and to the cerebral cortex) (beginning, end, location of the neurons, position in the spinal cord, brainstem, telencephalon, decussations, function).
  39. Give the definition of the efferent tracts. What efferent tract do you know?
  40. Describe the pyramidal tracts (beginning, end, location of the neurons, position in the spinal cord, brainstem, telencephalon, decussations, function).
  41. Describe the extrapyramidal tracts (beginning, end, location of the neurons, position in the spinal cord, brainstem, telencephalon, decussations, function).

    Practical part:

Spinal cord

  1. Medullary cone, conus medullaris;
  2. Filum terminale, filum terminale;
  3. Segment of the spinal cord, segmentum medullae spinalis;
  4. Cervical enlargement, intumescentia cervi­calis;
  5. Lumbosacral enlargement, intumescentia lumbosacralis;
  6. Cauda equina, cauda equina;
  7. Central canal, canalis centralis;
  8. Terminal ventricle, ventriculus terminalis;
  9. Anterior median fissure, fissura mediana anterior;
  10. Posterior median sulcus, sulcus medianus posterior;
  11. Anterolateral sulcus, sulcus anterolateralis;
  12. Posterolateral sulcus, sulcus posterolateralis;
  13. Posterior root ganglion, or spinal ganglion, ganlion sensorium nervi spinali (ganglion spinale);
  14. Anterior root of the spinal nerve, radix anterior nervi spinalis;
  15. Posterior root of the spinal nerve, radix posterior nervi spinalis;
  16. Trunk of the spinal nerve, truncus nervi spinalis;
  17. Grey matter of the spinal cord, substantia grisea;
  18. White matter of the spinal cord, substantia grisea;
  19. Anterior horn, cornu anterius;
  20. Posterior horn, cornu posterius;
  21. Lateral horn, cornu laterale;
  22. Grey columns, columnae griseae: posterior columns, columnae posteriores; lateral columns, columnae laterales; anterior columns, columnae anteriores;
  23. Anterior white commissure, comissura alba anterior;
  24. Anterior funiculus, funiculus anterior;
  25. Lateral funiculus, funiculus lateralis;
  26. Posterior funiculus, funiculus posterior;

         Brain

  1. The roots of the I cranial nerve (nervus olfactorius).
  2. The roots of the II cranial nerve (nervus opticus).
  3. The roots of the III cranial nerve (nervus oculomotorius)..
  4. The roots of the IV cranial nerve (nervus trochlearis).
  5. The roots of the V cranial nerve (nervus trigeminus).
  6. The roots of the VI cranial nerve (nervus abducens).
  7. The roots of the VII cranial nerve (nervus facialis).
  8. The roots of the VIII cranial nerve (nervus vestibulocochlearis).
  9. The roots of the IX cranial nerve (nervus glossopharingeus).
  10. The roots of the X cranial nerve (nervus vagus).
  11. The roots of the XI cranial nerve (nervus accessorius).
  12. The roots of the XII cranial nerve (nervus hypoglossus).
  13. Olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius).
  14. Olfactory tract (tractus olfactorius).
  15. Olfactory trigone (trigonum olfactorium).
  16. Optic chiasm (chiasma opticum).
  17. Tuber cinereum (tuber cinereum).
  18. Infundibulum (infundibulum).
  19. Hypophysis (hypophysis).
  20. Mamillary bodies (corpora mamillaria).
  21. Anterior perforated substance (substantia perforata anterior).
  22. Cerebral peduncles (pedunculi crebri).
  23. Interpeduncular fossa (fossa interpduncularis).
  24. Posterior perforated substance (substantia perforata posterior).
  25. Pons (pons).
  26. Cerebellum (cerebellum).
  27. Brain stem (truncus cerebri).
  28. Cerebral hemisphere (hemispheria cerebri).
  29. Longitudinal cerebral fissure (fissura longitudinalis cerebri).
  30. Corpus callosum (corpus callosum).
  31. Transverse cerebral fissure (fissura transversa cerebri).
  32. Rhombencephalon (rhombencephalon).
  33. Medulla oblongata (medulla oblongata).
  34. Metencephalon (metencephalon).
  35. Mesencephalon (mesencephalon).
  36. Diencephalon (diencephalon).
  37. Telencephalon (telencephalon).

Medulla oblongata:

  1. Ventral, dorsal and lateral surfaces;
  2. Anterior median fissure, fissura mediana anterior;
  3. Posterior median sulcus, sulcus medianus posterior;
  4. Pyramid, pyramis medullae oblongatae;
  5. Pyramidal decussation, decussatio pyramidum;
  6. Gracile fasciculus, fasciculus gracilis;
  7. Cuneate fasciculus, fasciculus cuneatus;
  8. Olive, oliva;
  9. Anterolateral sulcus, sulcus anterolateralis,
  10. Posterolateral sulcus, sulcus posterolateralis,
  11. Roots of the accessory, vagus, glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves
  12. Gracile tubercle, tuberculum gracile;
  13. Cuneate tubercles, tuberculum cuneatum;

Pons:

  1. Ventral and dorsal surfaces;
  2. Ventral part, pars ventralis (basilar part, pars basilaris);
  3. Dorsal part, pars dorsalis (tegmentum, tegmentum pontis);
  4. Trapezoid body, corpus trapezoideum;
  5. Basilar sulcus, sulcus basilaris,
  6. Roots of the abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear and trigeminal nerves;
  7. Medullopontine sulcus, sulcus bulbopontinus;
  8. Cerebellopontine angle, angulus pontocerebellaris;

Cerebellum:

  1. Vermis, vermis;
  2. Hemispheres, hemispheria;
  3. Horizontal fissure, sulcus horizontalis;
  4. Superior and inferior hemispheric surfaces;
  5. Flocculus, flocculus;
  6. Peduncle of flocculus, pedunculus flocculi;
  7. Vallecula, vallecula cerebelli;
  8. Lamellae, gyri;
  9. Laminae, foliae cerebelli;
  10. Lobes, lobuli;
  11. Superior cerebellar peduncles, pedunculi cerebellares superiores;
  12. Middle cerebellar peduncles, pedunculi cerebellares medii;
  13. Inferior cerebellar peduncles, pedunculi cerebellares inferiores;

     Rhomboid fossa (fossa rhomboidea):

  1. Median sulcus (sulcus medianus)
  2. Medial eminence (eminentia medialis)
  3. Trigone of hypoglossal nerve (trigonum nervi hypolossi)
  4. Trigone of vagus nerve (trigonum nervi vagi)
  5. Facial colliculus (colliculus facialis)
  6. Superior medullary velum (velum medullare superius)
  7. Inferior medullary velum (vellum medulare inferius)
  8. Choroid membrane (tela choroidea)

 

      Mesencephalon (mesencephalon):

  1. Tegmentum of midbrain (tegmentum mesencephali)
  2. Cerebral peduncles (on the whole brain and on the sagittal section) (pedunculi cerebri)
  3. Substantia nigra (substantia nigra)
  4. Poastreior perforated substance (substantia perforata posterior)
  5. Interpeduncular fossa (fossa interpenduncularis)
  6. Superior colliculi (colliculi superiors)
  7. Inferior colliculi (colliculi inferiors)
  8. Brachia of superior and inferior colliculi (brachia colliculi superioris et inferioris)
  9. Trigone of lemniscus (trigonum lemnisci)
  10. Cerebral aqueduct (aqueductus vestibuli)

 

 

 

Thalamus:

  1. Thalamus (thalamus).
  2. Anterior tubercle (tuberculum anterius thalami)
  3. Pulvinar (pulvinar thalami)
  4. Stria medullaris (stria medullaris thalami)
  5. Habenular trigone (trigonum habenulae)
  6. Fornix (fornix)
  7. Interthalamic adhesion (adhesio interthalamica)
  8. Epithalamus (epithalamus)
  9. Epiphysis (glandula pinealis)
  10. Habenulae (habenulae)
  11. Habenular comissure (comissura habenularum)
  12. Metathalamus (metathalamus)
  13. Medial geniculate body (corpus geniculatum mediale)
  14. Lateral geniculate body (corpus geniculatum laterale)
  15. Hypothalamus (hypothalamus)
  16. Optic tract (tractus opticus)
  17. Supraoptic recess (recessus supra-opticus)
  18. Infundibular recess (recessus infundibuli)

 

  1. Lamina terminalis (lamina terminalis)
  2. Lamina rostralis (lamina rostralis)
  3. III ventricle (ventriculus tertius)
  4. Column of fornix (columnae fornicis)
  5. Anterior comissure (comissura anterior)
  6. Tela choroidea (tela choroidea)

 

Basal nuclei:

  1. Caudate nucleus (nucleus caudatus): head, body, tail
  2. Lentiform nucleus (nucleus lentiformis)
  3. Putamen (putamen)
  4. Globus pallidus (globus pallidus)
  5. Claustrum (claustrum)
  6. Corpus amigdaloideum (corpus amigdaloideum)
  7. Internal capsule (capsula interna)
  8. Genu of internal capsule (genu capsulae internae)
  9. Anterior limb of internal capsule (crus anterius)
  10. Posterior limb of internal capsule (crus posterius)
  11. Corona radiata (corona radiata)
  12. External capsule (capsula externa)
  13. Extreme capsule (capsula extrema)

 

  1. Lateral ventricles (ventriculi laterales)
  2. Central part (pars centralis)
  3. Anterior horns (cornua anteriores)
  4. Posterior horns (cornua posteriores)
  5. Inferior horns (cornua inferiores)
  6. Choroid plexus (plexus choroideus)
  7. Collateral eminence (eminentia collateralis)
  8. Calcarine spur (calcar avis)
  9. Hippocampus (hippocampus)

 

  1. Corpus callosum (corpus callosum):
  2. Genu (genu corporis callosi)
  3. Trunk (truncus corporis callosi)
  4. Splenium (splenium corporis callosi)
  5. Rostrum (rostrum corporis callosi)

 

  1. Fornix (fornix):
  2. Columns (columnae fornicis)
  3. Crus (crura fornicis)
  4. Comissure (comissura fornicis)
  5. Septum pellucidum (septum pellucidum)

                    

                   Cerebrum:

  1. Superolateral surface of cerebral hemisphere (facies superolateralis hemispherii cerebri)
  2. Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere (facies medialis hemispherii cerebri)
  3. Inferior surface of cerebral hemisphere (facies inferior hemispherii cerebri)
  4. Lateral sulcus (sulcus lateralis)
  5. Central sulcus (sulcus centralis)
  6. Frontal lobe (lobus frontalis)
  7. Parietal lobe (lobus parietalis)
  8. Occipital lobe (lobus occipitalis)
  9. Temporal lobe (lobus temporalis)
  10. Insula (insula)

 

SUPEROLATERAL  SURFACE OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE:

Frontal lobe:

  1. Precentral sulcus (sulcus precentralis)
  2. Superior frontal sulcus (sulcus frontalis superior)
  3. Inferior frontal sulcus (sulcus frontalis inferior)
  4. Precentral gyrus (gyrus precentralis)
  5. Superior frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis superior)
  6. Middle frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis medius)
  7. Inferior frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis inferior)
  8. Opercular part (pars opercularis)
  9. Triangular part (pars triangularis)
  10. Orbital part (pars orbitalis)

Parietal lobe:

  1. Postcentral sulcus (sulcus postcentralis)
  2. Intraparietal sulcus (sulcus intraparietalis)
  3. Postcentral gyrus (gyrus postcentralis)
  4. Superior parietal lobule (lobulus parietalis superior)
  5. Inferior parietal lobule (lobulus parietalis inferior)
  6. Supramarginal gyrus (gyrus supramarginalis)
  7. Angular gyrus (gyrus angularis)

Occipital lobe:

  1. Transverse occipital sulcus (sulcus occipitalis transversus)
  2. Occipital gyri (gyri occipitales)

Temporal lobe:

  1. Superior temporal sulcus (sulcus temporalis superior)
  2. Inferior temporal sulcus (sulcus temporalis inferior)
  3. Superior temporal gyrus (gyrus temporalis superior)
  4. Middle temporal gyrus (gyrus temporalis medius)
  5. Inferior temporal gyrus (gyrus temporalis inferior)

 

MIDDLE  SURFACE OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE:

  1. Sulcus of corpus callosum (sulcus corporis callosi)
  2. Hippocampal sulcus (sulcus hippocampi)
  3. Cingulate sulcus (sulcus cinguli)
  4. Paracentral sulcus (sulcus paracentralis)
  5. Parietoocipital sulcus (sulcus parietooccipitalis)
  6. Calcarine sulcus (sulcus calcarinus)
  7. Rhinal sulcus (sulcus rhinalis)
  8. Paracentral lobule (lobulus paracentralis)
  9. Precuneus (precuneus)
  10. Cuneus (cuneus)
  11. Fornicate gyrus (gyrus fornicatus)
  12. Cingulate gyrus (gyrus cinguli)
  13. Parahippocampal gyrus (gyrus parahippocampalis)
  14. Uncus (uncus)
  15. Isthmus of cingulate gyrus (isthmus gyri cinguli)

 

    INFERIOR  SURFACE OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE:

  1. Olfactory sulcus (sulcus olfactorius)
  2. Orbital sulci (sulci orbitales)
  3. Straight gyrus (gyrus rectus)
  4. Orbital gyri (gyri orbitales)
  5. Occipitotemporal sulci (sulcus occipitotemporalis)
  6. Collateral sulcus (sulcus collateralis)
  7. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus (gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis)
  8. Middle occipitotemporal gyrus (gyrus occipitotemporalis medialis)
  9. Lingual gyrus (gyrus lingualis)

 

Meninges:

  1. Dura mater (dura mater encephali)
  2. Pia mater (pia mater encephali)
  3. Falx cerebri (falx cerebri)
  4. Tentorium cerebelli (tentorium cerebelli)
  5. Falx cerebelli (falx cerebelli)
  6. Sellar diaphragm (diaphragma sellae)
  7. Transverse sinus (sinus transversus)
  8. Superior sagittal sinus (sinus sagittalis superior)
  9. Occipital sinus (sinus occipitalis)
  10. Straight sinus (sinus rectus)
  11. Confluence of sinuses (confluens sinuum)
  12. Cavernous sinus (sinus cavernosus)
  13. Intercavernous sinus (sinus intercavernosus)
  14. Superior petrosal sinus (sinus petrosus superior)
  15. Inferior petrosal sinus (sinus petrosus inferior)
  16. Basilar plexus (plexus basilaris)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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