Questions what you should know7

1.Vegetative (autonomic) nervous system

2. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

3. The spinal nerves. The cervical plexus. The intercostal nerves.

4. Brachial plexus

5. Lumbosacral plexus

6. Cranial nerves (I, II, III, IV and VI)

7. Cranial nerve (V)

8. Cranial nerves (VII, VIII)

9. Cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, XII)

Major Cranial nerves and sense organs

Major Vessels and nerves of limbs

1.Vegetative (autonomic) nervous system

           Importance:

           Vegetative nervous system provides innervation of all internal organs. Activity of organs depends on the state of the vegetative nervous system. The defeat of the vegetative nervous system causes the dysfunctions of internal organs. That is why the good anatomical knowledge of this topic is necessary for doctors of any speciality.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. Classification of the nervous system (see General data of nervous system)
  2. The structure of neurons, their classification and localization (see General data of nervous system)
  3. The structure of the reflex arch, the types of the reflex arches (see General data of nervous system)

Questions (see Autonomic nervous system):

  1. Give the definition of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). What tissues and organs need the autonomic innervation?
  2. Describe the differences between somatic nervous system and ANS.
  3. Describe the functional effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  4. Describe the structure of the ANS according to the hierarchical principle.
  5. What parts are included into the central part of the ANS?
  6. What parts are included into the peripheral part of the ANS?
  7. Classify the vegetative ganglia.
  8. Describe suprasegmental and segmental centres of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
  9. Describe the location of the first, second and third-order neurons of the autonomic reflex arch (sympathetic and parasympathetic).
  10. Describe the somatic and autonomic reflex arches and differences between them.
  11. How do the afferent impulses reach the spinal cord or brain stem (in sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems)?
  12. Describe the afferent and efferent pathways of the VNS.
  13. How do the efferent impulses reach the effector organs (in sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems)?
  14. Give the definition of the preganglionic and postganglionic nerve fibers, and describe differences between them.
  15. What are the white and grey rami communicantes?
  16. Give the definition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the ANS. Describe their function and differences between them. Which organs are devoid of parasympathetic innervation?

Complete the table

Effects of VNS

Systems and organs Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS
Pupil
Lacrimal gland
Salivary glands
Contraction of heart
Heart rhythm
Blood vessels
Heart vessels
Frequency of breath
Bronchi
Sweat glands
Adrenal glands
Reproductive organs
Uterus
Digestive tract
Urinary bladder
Sphincters

 

2. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.

 

Importance:

           Vegetative nervous system provides innervation of all internal organs. Activity of organs depends on the state of the vegetative nervous system. The defeat of the vegetative nervous system causes the dysfunctions of internal organs. That is why the good anatomical knowledge of this topic is necessary for doctors of any speciality.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The topography of the nuclei and roots of the III, VII, IX and X cranial nerves.
  2. The structure and passage of the III, V, VII, IX and X cranial nerves.

Questions:

  1. What structures belong to the central part of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)?
  2. What structures belong to the peripheral part of the SNS?
  3. Describe the structure of the sympathetic trunk: its topograhy in the neck, thoracic and abdominal cavities, its parts, the number of ganglia in each part, and the rami arising from the sympathetic trunk.
  4. Describe the location of the superior cervical ganglion; name its branches; describe the structure of the internal carotid plexus. What organs are supplied by the branches of this ganglion?
  5. Describe the location of the middle cervical ganglion; name its branches. What organs are supplied by the branches of this ganglion?
  6. Describe the location of the cervicothoracic ganglion; name its branches. What organs are supplied by the branches of this ganglion?
  7. Describe the branches of the thoracic ganglia; how are the greater and lesser splanchnic nerves formed? What organs are supplied by the branches of the thoracic ganglia and by the splanchnic nerves?
  8. Describe the branches of the lumbar ganglia. What organs do the branches of these ganglia innervate?
  9. Describe the branches of the sacral and coccygeal ganglia. What organs do the branches of these ganglia innervate?
  10. Describe the structure of the abdominal aortic plexus: its ganglia, branches, and secondary autonomic plexuses of the abdominal viscera, formed by the branches of the abdominal aortic plexus. What viscera do these plexuses innervate?
  11. Describe the structure of the superior and inferior hypogastric plexuses, and the plexuses of the pelvic organs, formed by branches of the superior and inferior hypogastric plexuses. What viscera do these plexuses innervate?
  12. What structures form the central and peripheral parts of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)?
  13. What types of the ganglia are typical of the PNS?
  14. Which nuclei form the mesencephalic and ponto-bulbar part of the PNS?
  15. Name the parasympathetic ganglia of the head region and describe their location. Explain how the pre- and postganglionic fibres of these ganglia are formed. What organs are supplied by the postganglionic fibres from these ganglia?
  16. Describe the sacral part of the PNS. What organs receive the parasympathetic innervation from the sacral part?
  17. Using the knowledge about the principles of the autonomic innervation, describe the afferent and efferent (sympathetic and parasympathetic) pathways from and to the following organs (eyeball, major salivary glands, larynx, pharynx, oesophagus, bronchi, heart, stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, reproductive organs). Describe the effects caused by sympathetic or parasympathetic innervation.
  18. Describe the metasympathetic part of the ANS. What is its functional purpose?

 

Written task: 

Describe in written form the innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the following organs: sphincter and dilator of pupil, lacrimal gland, parotid gland, sublingual gland, submandibular gland, oral mucosa, nasal mucosa, pharyngeal mucosa, laryngeal mucosa, oesophageal mucosa and muscles, tracheal mucosa and muscles, bronchial mucosa and muscles, heart musculature, pericardium, stomach, intestine, pancreas, liver, kidneys, suprarenal glands, spleen, urinary bladder, rectum, prostate, uterus, ovaries, testes.

To print the diagrams for the topic click here  (three first diagrams)

3. The spinal nerves. The cervical plexus. The intercostal nerves.

Importance:

To know anatomy of the cervical plexus is necessary in clinics of surgical, therapeutic and nerve diseases. Without this knowledge a doctor can not make a proper topical diagnosis of spinal cord injury and cervical plexites. It is important to know the anatomy of the phrenic nerve for the diagnosis of liver diseases (frenicus-symptom) and the diseases of the diaphragm.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The classification of the nervous system;
  2. The structure of the spinal cord (external and internal);
  3. The muscles of the neck.

Home task:

Print the diagram Cutaneous innervation of head and neck  and paint in different colors the regions of the cutaneous innervation of head and neck, using this topic material and the information about trigeminal nerve. Write the names of the nerves that innervate the indicated regions.

Questions (use the material here The innervation of the cervical muscles; Cutaneous innervation of the head and neck):

  1. How can the nervous system be classified?
  2. What types of the nerves do you know? Describe them.
  3. Describe the structure of a nerve.
  4. Describe the formation and fiber composition of the spinal nerves.
  5. Describe the structure of the anterior and posterior spinal roots. How do they pass through the spinal cord? Which of them is sensory (motor)?
  6. Give the definition of the spinal ganglion. Describe its location. What type do its neurons belong to?
  7. Classify the posterior spinal rami according to the regional principle. What areas do they innervate?
  8. Describe the course of the posterior rami of the I and II cervical spinal nerves. What areas do they innervate?
  9. Describe the location of the anterior spinal rami. What areas do they innervate?
  10. Describe the formation and topography of the intercostal nerves.
  11. What cervical spinal nerves form the cervical plexus? Describe the location of the cervical plexus and the fiber composition of its nerves.
  12. What muscles do the motor nerves of the cervical plexus innervate?
  13. Explain what is ansa cervicalis profunda: how is it formed, what muscles does it innervate?
  14. Name the sensory (cutaneous) branches of the cervical plexus, describe their topography. What skin areas do they innervate?
  15. What branch of the cervical plexus is a mixed nerve? Describe its topography.

Practice:

  1. Intercostal nerves (nervi intercostales);
  2. Diaphragmatic nerve (nervus diaphragmaticus);
  3. Cervical plexus (plexus cervicalis)

 4. Brachial plexus

Importance:

The diagnostics of the spinal  injuries and the damages to the upper limb nerves is based on the anatomy of the brachial plexus. The traumas and neurites of the long branches of the brachial plexus often occur. To know their anatomy is especially important for operations on the bones and soft tissues of the arm. The doctors must know the interrelation between the nerves and surrounding tissues to choose the correct methods of the treatment in case of damages to the upper limb.

Before you start to study this topic you need to know:

  1. The formation of spinal nerves;
  2. The muscles of the shoulder girdle and upper limb: the muscle  groups and their action.
  3. Topography of the uper limb

Questions:

  1. What spinal nerves (numbers) form the brachial plexus?
  2. Describe the topography and trunks of the brachial plexus.
  3. What spinal segments give rise to the nerves of the supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus? Describe these nerves, their composition, topography and innervation zones.
  4. Name the nerves of the infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus.
  5. What spinal segments give rise to the medial brachial cutaneous nerve? Describe its topography, composition and innervation zones.
  6. What spinal segments give rise to the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve? Describe its topography, composition and innervation zones.
  7. What spinal segments give rise to the ulnar nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the ulnar nerve and their innervation zones.
  8. What spinal segments give rise to the median nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the median nerve and their innervation zones.
  9. What spianl segments give rise to the musculocutaneous nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the musculocutaneous nerve and their innervation zones.
  10. What spinal segments give rise to the axillary nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the axillary nerve and their innervation zones.
  11. What spinal segments give rise to the radial nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the radial nerve and their innervation zones.
  12. Describe the innervation of the brachial muscles: what nerves innervate the anterior muscle group and the posterior muscle group?
  13. Describe the innervation of the antebrachial muscles: which muscle group is innervated by the radial nerve, by the median nerve and by the ulnar nerve?
  14. Describe the innervation of the hand muscles: what nerves innervate the muscles of the thenar, the muscles of the hypothenar, the interossei and lumbricals?
  15. Describe the cutaneous innervation of upper arm, forearm and hand.

Practice:

  1. Trunks of brachial plexus (superior, middle, inferior);
  2. Long thoracic nerve (nervus thoracicus longus);
  3. Lateral and medial pectoral nerves (nervi pectorales lateralis et medialis);
  4. Subscapular nerve (nervus subscapularis);
  5. Medial brachial cutaneous nerve (nervus cutaneus brachii medialis);
  6. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (nervus cutaneus antebrachii medialis);
  7. Ulnar nerve (nervus ulnaris);
  8. Median nerve (nervus medianus);
  9. Musculocutaneous nerve (nervus musculocutaneus);
  10. Axillary nerve (nervus axillaris);
  11. Radial nerve (nervus radialis)

 To watch the videos for this topic click here Videomaterials 

 To print the diagrams for the topic click here Cutaneous innervation of the arm (anterior aspect); Cutaneous innervation of the arm (posterior aspect) 

5. The lumbo-sacral plexus

 

Importance: the knowledge of this topic material allows doctors to make a correct  diagnosis in cases of damage to the lumbosacral plexus branches. The traumas and neurites of the long branches of the sacral plexus often occur. To know their anatomy is especially important for operations on the bones and soft tissues of the leg. The doctors must know the interrelation between the nerves and surrounding tissues to choose the correct methods of the treatment in case of damages to the lower limb.

 

Before you start to study this topic you need to know:

  1. The formation of spinal nerves;
  2. The muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limb: the muscle  groups and their function.
  3. Topography of the lower limb

 

Questions:

  1. What spinal nerves (numbers) form the lumbar and sacral plexuses?
  2. Describe the topography of the lumbar and sacral plexus.
  3. Name the branches of lumbar plexus.
  4. What spinal segments give rise to the iliohypogastric nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the iliohypogastric nerve and their innervation zones.
  5. What spinal segments give rise to the ilioinguinal nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the ilioinguinal nerve and their innervation zones.
  6. What spinal segments give rise to the genitofemoral nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the genitofemoral nerve and their innervation zones.
  7. What nerves pass through the inguinal canal?
  8. What segments of the spinal cord give rise to the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh? Describe its topography, composition and innervation zone.
  9. What spinal segments give rise to the obturator nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the obturator nerve and their innervation zones.
  10. What spinal segments give rise to the femoral nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Describe the branches of the femoral nerve and their innervation zones.
  11. Describe the saphenus nerve: origin, topography and composition. What region does it supply?
  12. Name the branches of sacral plexus.
  13. What spinal segments give rise to the superior and inferior gluteal nerves? Describe its topography, composition, and innervation zones.
  14. What spinal segments give rise to the posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh? Describe its topography and composition. What region does it supply?
  15. What spinal segments give rise to the pudendal nerve? Describe its topography, composition, branches. What organs does it supply?
  16. What spinal segments give rise to the sciatic nerve? Describe its topography and composition. Name the branches of the sciatic nerve. What do they supply? What are the terminal branches of the sciatic nerve?
  17. What nerves pass through obturator canal, foramina supra- and infrapiriforme?
  18. Describe the tibial nerve: origin, topography and composition. Describe the branches of the tibial nerve and their innervation zones.
  19. Describe the topography and composition of the lateral plantar nerve. Describe the branches of the lateral plantar nerve and their innervation zones.
  20. Describe the topography and composition of the medial plantar nerve. Describe the branches of the medial plantar nerve and their innervation zones.
  21. Describe the common fibular nerve: topography, branches and their composition. What regions are innervated by deep and superficial fibular nerves?
  22. Describe the muscular and cutaneous innervation of the pelvic girdle, thigh, leg and foot.

 

Practice:

  1. Iliohypogastric nerve (nervus iliohypogastric nerve);
  2. Ilioinguinal nerve (nervus ilioinguinalis);
  3. Genitofemoral nerves (nervus genitofemoralis);
  4. Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh (nervus cutaneous femoris lateralis);
  5. Obturator nerve (nervus obturatorius);
  6. Femoral nerve (nervus femoralis);
  7. Ulnar nerve (nervus ulnaris);
  8. Saphenus nerve (nervus saphenus);
  9. Sciatic nerve (nervus ischiadicus);
  10. Tibial nerve (nervus tibialis);
  11. Medial plantar nerve (nervus plantaris medialis);
  12. Lateral plantar nerve (nervus plantaris lateralis);
  13. Superficial fibular nerve (nervus fibularis superficialis);
  14. Deep fibular nerve (nervus fibularis profundus);

 To watch the video for the topic click here Videomaterials

 To print the diadrams for the topic click here Cutaneous innervation of lower limb (anterior aspect); Cutaneous innervation of lower limb (posterior aspect)

The table «Innervation of the lower limb muscles»

 

6. Cranial nerves (I, II, III, IV and VI)

                Importance:

             Among the diseases of nerves and eyes the pathology of the I, II, III, IV, VI pairs of cranial nerves are often observed.

            To understand the process of the symptom development, to make a correct diagnosis and prescribe correct treatment a doctor should know the anatomy of olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear and abducent nerves, should understand the olfactory and visual pathways and know how the papillary light reflex occurs.

Before you start to study this topic you need to know:

  1. Location of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, of the optic canals, of the superior orbital fissure in the skull.
  2. The structure of the rhinencephalon.
  3. The location of the cortical olfactory and visual areas.
  4. The location of the optic tracts, optic chiasm.
  5. The topography of the roots of the III, IV, VI cranial nerves on the ventral surface of the brain.
  6. The location, names and types of the nuclei of the III, IV, VI cranial nerves.
  7. The structure of the retina.
  8. The location and function of the extraocular and intraocular muscles.

     Questions (use the book Functional Anatomy of Cranial Nerves and presentation III, IV, VI cranial nerves):

I cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the I cranial nerve?
  2. How are the olfactory nerves formed?
  3. What is the type of the olfactory nerve?
  4. How many olfactory nerves exist?
  5. Where are olfactory receptors located?
  6. Through what openings do the olfactory nerves pass into the skull?
  7. How many neurons does the olfactory pathway include?
  8. Where are the first-order, second-order and third-order neurons of the olfactory pathway located?
  9. Where are subcortical and cortical olfactory areas located in the brain?

      II cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the II cranial nerve?
  2. Axon of which neurons form the optic nerve?
  3. What parts are distinguished in the optic nerve?
  4. Through what opening does the optic nerve pass into the skull?
  5. How is the optic chiasma formed?
  6. Where are the receptors of the visual pathway located?
  7. How many neurons does the visual pathway include?
  8. Where are the first-order, second-order and third-order neurons of the visual pathway located?
  9. What parts of the brain are subcortical centers of the visual analyzer?
  10. Where are subcortical and cortical visual areas located in the brain?

      III cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the III cranial nerve?
  2. Describe the fiber composition of the III cranial nerve.
  3. How is the oculomotor nerve formed?
  4. Where are the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve located? What are their names?
  5. Which of the oculomotor nerve nuclei is motor, which is parasympathetic?
  6. Describe topography of the oculomotor nerve on the cerebral base.
  7. Through what opening does the oculomotor nerve leave the skull?
  8. Which muscles of the eye are innervated by the superior branch of the oculomotor nerve?
  9. Which muscles of the eye are innervated by the inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve?
  10. To which neurons do the parasympathetic fibers of the oculomotor nerve run?
  11. Where is the ciliary ganglion located? What neurons does it contain?
  12. Which muscles of the eye are innervated by the axons from the ciliary ganglion?

      IV cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the IV cranial nerve?
  2. Describe the fiber composition of the IV cranial nerve.
  3. How is the trochlear nerve formed?
  4. Where is the nucleus of the trochlear nerve located? What is its name and type?
  5. Describe topography of the trochlear nerve on the cerebral base.
  6. Through what opening does the trochlear nerve leave the skull?
  7. What eyeball muscle is innervated by the trochlear nerve?

      VI cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the VI cranial nerve?
  2. Describe the fiber composition of the VI cranial nerve.
  3. How is the abducens nerve formed?
  4. Where is the nucleus of the abducens nerve located? What is its name and type?
  5. Describe topography of the abducens nerve on the cerebral base.
  6. Through what opening does the abducens nerve leave the skull?
  7. What eyeball muscle is innervated by the abducens nerve?

Describe the innervation of the ocular muscles:

  1. Which nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle?
  2. Which nerve innervates the superior rectus muscle?
  3. Which nerve innervates the inferior oblique muscle?
  4. Which nerve innervates the inferior rectus muscle?
  5. Which nerve innervates the medial rectus muscle?
  6. Which nerve innervates the lateral rectus muscle?
  7. Which nerve innervates the levator palpebrae superiores?
  8. Which nerve innervates the ciliary muscle?
  9. Which nerve innervates the sphincter of pupil?

  To print the diagrams for the topic click here Olfactory pathway; Visual pathway; Oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves

 

7.V cranial nerve

              Importance:

                  Of all the cranial nerves the trigeminal nerve has the most complex structure. Its branches innervate the skin of the head and face, the mucous membranes and masticatory muscles.

                  The pathology of the trigeminal nerve is often observed: among the lesions of the peripheral nerves, the trigeminal neuralgia is third in frequency.

                  Topographically and functionally the trigeminal nerve is associated with other nerves and parasympathetic ganglia of the head.                  

                  The knowledge of the trigeminal nerve anatomy is necessary in surgery to do  anesthesia of teeth, surgical operations on the face.

                  To know topography, anatomy and functional characteristics of the trigeminal nerve is important for the study of other cranial nerves: facial, glossopharyngeal and others.

 

Before you start to study this topic you need to know:

  1. Location of the following skull structures:

 — foramen  ovale;

 — foramen spinosum;

 — superior orbital fissure;

 — inferior orbital fissure;

 — infraorbital canal;

 — infraorbital foramen;

 — supraorbital notch;

 — zygomaticoorbital foramen;

 — zygomaticotemporal foramen;

 — zygomaticofacial foramen;

 — anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina;

  — trigeminal impression;

 — pterygopalatine fossa;

 — sphenopalatine foramen;

 — mandibular canal;

 — greater and lesser palatine canals;

  1. Location and action of the following muscles:

 — masseter;

 — temporalis;

 — lateral and medial pterygoid;

 — mylohyoid;

 — digastric;

 — tensor tympani;

 — tensor veli palatini

  1. Names, location and structure of the trigeminal nerve nuclei.

      Questions (use the book Functional Anatomy of Cranial Nerves and presentation Trigeminal nerve):

  1. What is the name of the V cranial nerve?
  2.  Describe the fibre composition of the V cranial nerve.
  3. How is the trigeminal nerve formed?
  4. Where are the trigeminal nerve nuclei located?
  5. Name the trigeminal nerve nuclei. Which of them are motor (sensory)?
  6. Describe the topography of the trigeminal nerve on the cerebral base?
  7. Name the trigeminal nerve divisions.
  8. Through which openings do the branches of the trigeminal nerve leave the skull?
  9. Describe the fibre composition of the trigemonal nerve divisions.
  10. What area of the head is innervated by each of the trigeminal nerve divisions?
  11. Describe the course of the ophthalmic nerve; what branches is it divided into?
  12. Name the branches of the nasociliary nerve. Which regions do they innervate?
  13. Describe the connection of the nasociliary nerve with the ciliary ganglion. Why are they connected? Describe the structure and function of the ciliary ganglion. How are the short ciliary nerves formed? What do they innervate?
  14. Describe the course and branches of the frontal nerve. Which regions does it innervate?
  15. What type of innervation does the lacrimal nerve gives to the lacrimal gland?
  16. Describe the course of the maxillary nerve; what branches does it give off?
  17. Describe the course and branches of the infraorbital nerve. Which regions does it innervate?
  18. What is the pes ancerinus minor, which nerves form it?
  19. Describe course and branches of the zygomatic nerve. Which regions does it innervate?
  20. Explain the function of the ganglionic fibers of the maxillary nerve. Why are they connected with the pterygopalatine ganglion?
  21. Name the branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion and describe their function. What glands do the branches of the trigeminal nerve, passing together with the branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion, innervate? What type of innervation do they give?
  22. Describe the course and branches of the mandibular nerve.
  23. Name the motor branches of the mandibular nerve. What muscles do they innervate?
  24. Name the sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve and describe their course. Which regions do they innervate?
  25. Which parasympathetic nerve joins the lingual nerve? Why do they pass together? To which parasympathetic ganglia do the ganglionic fibers of the lingual nerve run?
  26. What type of the innervation does the lingual nerve give to the sublingual and submandibular glands?
  27. Describe the course of the auriculotemporal nerve. Name its branches. What do they innervate?
  28. To what parasympathetic ganglion do the connecting fibers of the auriculotemporal nerve pass?
  29. Which parasympathetic nerve accompanies the aruriculotemporal nerve? Why do they pass together?
  30. What type of the innervation does the auriculotemporal nerve give to the parotid gland?

 

Describe the innervation of the following areas:

  1. Skin of forehead, zygomatic region, chin, cheek, temporal region.
  2. Upper and lower lips.
  3. Upper and lower eyelids.
  4. Fibrous and vascular layer of eyeball.
  5. Extraocular and intraocular muscles of eyeball (proprioceptive and motor innervation).
  6. Lacrimal gland; submandibular, sublingual, parotid glands (sensory and secretory innervaion)
  7. Upper and lower teeth.
  8. Mylohyoid, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, masseter, lateral and medial pterygoid, temporalis muscles.

To watch the video for the topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Branches of mandibular nerve; Branches of maxillary nerve; Branches of ophthalmic nerve; Divisions of trigeminal nerve

 

8. Cranial nerves (VII, VIII)

       Importance:

       In clinical practice the diseases of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves, which are accompanied by paralysis of mimic muscles, disorder of hearing and balance, are often observed.

To make correct diagnosis, to understand how the symptoms appear, to treat these diseases, a doctor should know the anatomy of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerve and vestibular and acoustic pathways.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. Name, location and types of the nuclei of facial and vedtibulocochlear nerves.
  2. Location of the following skull structures:

— facial canal;

— canal of greater petrosal nerve;

— petrotympanic fissure;

— foramen lacerum;

— pterygoid canal;

— pterygopalatine fossa;

  1. Structure of the facial canal.
  2. Location of vestibular and cochlear nuclei.
  3. Communications of the pterygopalatine fossa.
  4. The sound conduction and the structure of Corti organ.
  5. The structure of the vestibular apparatus.

     Questions (use the book Functional Anatomy of Cranial Nerves) :

 VII pair of cranial nerves

  1. What is the name of VII cranial nerve?
  2. Describe the fiber composition of the facial nerve.
  3. Describe the facial nerve formation.
  4. Name the facial nerve nuclei and describe their location and types.
  5. What is the intermediate nerve? Describe its fiber composition.
  6. Describe the topography of the facial nerve root on the cerebral base.
  7. Name and describe the parts of the facial nerve.What part of the facial nerve doesn`t give the branches?
  8. Which branches arise from the second part of the facial nerve?
  9. Describe the fiber composition of the greater petrosal nerve.
  10. Describe the course of the greater petrosal nerve.
  11. Trough what opening of the skull does the greater petrosal nerve pass?
  12. With which neurons does the greater petrosal nerve synapse?
  13. Which nerve joins to the greater petrosal nerve in the pterygoid canal? What is the name of their union?
  14. Name the branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion; what do they innervate?
  15. Describe the course of the pterygopalatine ganglion branches.
  16. What kind of innervation do the pterygopalatine ganglion branches give to the glands?How does it effect the gland`s functioning?
  17. Describe the fiber composition of the chorda tympani.
  18. Describe the course of the chorda tympani.
  19. Through what opening of the skull does the chorda tympani pass?
  20. With which neurons do the parasympathetic fibers of the chorda tympani synapse?
  21. What organs are innervated by the vegetative fibers of the chorda tympani?
  22. What kind of innervation does the chorda tympani give to the glands? How does it effect the gland`s functioning?
  23. What organs are innervated by the sensory fibers of the chorda tympani?
  24. Decsribe the fiber composition of the stapedius nerve.
  25. Describe the course of the stapedius nerve.
  26. What does the stapedius nerve innervate?
  27. With which nerves is the facial nerve connected via its communicating branches?
  28. Through what opening does the facial nerve leave the skull?
  29. Name the branches of the third part of the facial nerve before it enters the parotid gland; what do they innervate? 
  30. Name the branches of the facial nerve after it exits the parotid gland; what do they innervate?

 

  VIII pair of cranial nerves

 

  1. What is the name of VIII cranial nerve? What parts does it include?
  2. Describe the fiber composition of the vestibulocochlear nerve. 
  3. Describe the formation of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
  4. Describe the location of the cochear ganglion.
  5. Where does the cochlear root enter the brain?
  6. Where are the acoustic receptors situated?
  7. How many neurons does the acoustic pathway include?
  8. Describe where the first, second and third-order neurons of the acoustic pathway are situated.
  9. What is the trapezoid body formed?
  10. Where does the acoustic pathway decussate?
  11. Give the definition of the lateral lemniscus.
  12. Where do the fibers of the lateral lemniscus end?
  13. Which parts of the brain contain subcortical acoustic centers? Describe their connections with other parts of the central nervous system.
  14. Where are the projection and association acoustic cortical areas situated?
  15. Describe the formation of the vestibular root.
  16. Where is the vestibular ganglion located?
  17. Where does the vestibular root enter the brain?
  18. Where are the vestibular receptors situated?
  19. How many neurons does the vestibular pathway include?
  20. Describe where the first, second and third-order neurons of the vestibular pathway are situated.
  21. Where does the vestibular pathway decussate?
  22. Where is the vestibular cortical area located?
  23. Describe the connections of the median thalamic nuclei.

 

 Describe the innervation of the following structures:

 

  1. Motor and proprioceptive innervation of the mimic muscles.
  2. Motor and proprioceptive innervation of the masticatory muscles?
  3. Sensory and taste innervation of the tongue.
  4. Sensory and secretory innervation of the lacrimal, sublingual, submandibular, parotid glands, mucous glands of nasal cavity and small salivary glands.
  5. Which muscles of the neck are innervated by the facial nerve and by trigeminal nerve?
  6. Innervate the muscles of middle ear.

 To print the diagrams for the topic click here Facial nerve; Vestibular conduction tract; Auditory conduction tract 

 9. Cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, XII)

Importance:

 The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves innervate the organs from the middle ear, parotid gland, tongue, pharynx to the sigmoid colon. The accessory and hypoglossal nerve innervate the cervical and lingual muscles.

    These nerves can be involved in the pathological processes in the organs which they innervate, especially vagus nerve. Therefore, it is necessary to know the topography of their nuclei and their branches.

 

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The names, location and types of the nuclei of the IX, X, XI, XII cranial nerves.
  2. Location of the following structures:

— tympanic canaliculus;

— jugular foramen;

— hiatus of the lesser petrosal canal;

— petrosquamous fissure

Questions (use the book Functional Anatomy of Cranial Nerves):

IX cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the IX cranial nerve?
  2. Describe the fiber composition of the IX cranial nerve.
  3. Describe the formation of the IX cranial nerve.
  4. Where are the glossopharyngeal nerve nuclei located? What are their names?
  5. Which of the glossopharyngeal nerve nuclei are motor (sensory, vegetative)?
  6. Describe the topography of the glossopharyngeal nerve root at the cerebral base.
  7. Through which opening does the glossopharyngeal nerve leave the skull?
  8. Describe the location of the glossopharyngeal nerve ganglia.
  9. Which vessels are located near the glossopharyngeal nerve at the jugular foramen?
  10. Name the motor, sensory and mixed branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve.
  11. Describe the fiber composition of the lingual branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve? What do they innervate?
  12. What is the composition of the tympanic nerve?
  13. Describe the course of the tympanic nerve.
  14. What nerves form the tympanic plexus?
  15. What does the tympanic nerve innervate?
  16. Where does the lesser petrosal nerve originate? Describe its fiber composition and course.
  17. Through which opening does the lesser petrosal nerve leave the skull?
  18. With which neurons does the lesser petrosal nerve synapse?
  19. What is the fiber composition of the pharyngeal branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
  20. What do the pharyngeal branches innervate?
  21. What is the fiber composition of the tonsillar branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
  22. What do the tonsillar branches innervate?
  23. With which nerves do the communicating branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve connect?
  24. What is the fiber composition of the carotid branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
  25. What does the carotid branch innervate?

X cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the X cranial nerve?
  2. What is the fiber composition of the X cranial nerve?
  3. Axons of which neurons form the vagus nerve?
  4. Where are the nuclei of the vagus nerve located? What are their names?
  5. Which of the nuclei of the vagus nerve motor (sensory, vegetative)?
  6. Where is the place of the exit of the vagus nerve from the brain?
  7. Which opening does the vagus nerve leave the skull through?
  8. What parts of the vagus nerve are distinguished?
  9. Describe the branches of the head part of the vagus nerve.
  10. Describe the branches of the cervical part of the vagus nerve.
  11. Describe the branches of the thoracic part of the vagus nerve.
  12. What organs are innervated by the branches of the vagus nerve?
  13. What is the fiber composition of branches of the vagus nerve?

XI cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the XI cranial nerve?
  2. What is the fiber composition of the XI cranial nerve?
  3. Axons of which neurons form the accessory nerve?
  4. Where are the nuclei of the accessory nerve located? What are their names? What is their type?
  5. Where is the place of the exit of the accessory nerve from the brain?
  6. Which opening does the accessory nerve leave the skull through?
  7. What muscles does the accessory nerve innervate?
  8. Which nerve does the accessory nerve connect with?

XII cranial nerve

  1. What is the name of the XII cranial nerve?
  2. What is the fiber composition of the XII cranial nerve?
  3. Axons of which neurons form the hypoglossal nerve?
  4. Where is the nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve located? What is its name? What is its type?
  5. Where is the place of the exit of the hypoglossal nerve from the brain?
  6. Which opening does the hypoglossal nerve leave the skull through?
  7. What muscles does the hypoglossal nerve innervate?
  8. Which nerve does the hypoglossal nerve connect with?

To print the diadrams for the topic click here Glosspharyngeal nerve; Vagus nerve; Accessory and hypoglossal nerves

 

Questions for the major “Cranial nerves. Sense organs. Endocrine glands”

  1. Name the layers of the eyeball in order. Describe the axes of eyeball: external, internal and visual.
  2. Describe the structure of the fibrous layer of the eye. Name and describe the parts of the fibrous layer. Describe the function of each part of this layer.
  3. Describe the structure of the vascular layer of the eye. Name and describe the parts of the vascular layer. Describe the function of each part of this layer.
  4. Describe the structure of the retina: its parts, layers and function. Describe the formation of the optic nerve. What is the macula lutea and macula caeca?
  5. Describe the chambers of eyeball. Explain the circulation and function of the aqueous humor. 
  6. Describe the lens structure, its ligaments and function. Describe the accommodation process.
  7. Name the refractive media of eyeball. Describe the passage of the light rays through the refractive media sequentially.
  8. Name the structures forming the accessory apparatus of the eyeball. Name the layers of the eyelids in order. Describe the location and the function of the tarsal glands. What muscles close and open eyelids?
  9. Name the extraocular muscles. Describe the attachment and action of each muscle.
  10. Describe the structure of the lacrimal apparatus and its functioning. 
  11. Name the parts of the external ear. Describe the structure of the auricle. Describe the location and shape of the external auditory meatus. Describe the structure of the meatus, including the structure of the skin lining the meatus. Describe the sound conduction in the external ear.
  12. Name the parts of the middlle ear. Name the walls of the tympanic cavity. Describe the arrangement of the tympanic cavity`s walls in the pyramid of the temporal bone.
  13. Describe the anterior, posterior and middle walls of the tympanic cavity in details. Describe the relations between these walls and the surrounding structures.
  14. Describe the superior,  lateral and inferior wall of the tympanic cavity. How are they formed? Describe their relations with surrounding structures.
  15. Name the acoustic ossicles. Describe their structures. How do they connect to each other and to the walls of the tympanic cavity? What is the medium in the tympanic cavity?
  16. What muscles move the acoustic ossicles? Describe their attachment. Describe the sound conduction in the middle ear.
  17. Describe the location of the auditory tube. Describe its structure. What organs does it connect? What openings does it have? Describe its function.
  18. Name the parts of the bony labyrinth. How are they arranged in the pyramid of the temporal bone? Describe the relations between the tympanic cavity and the labyrinth.
  19. Describe the structure of the semicircular canals; how do they open into the vestibule? Describe the inner surface of the vestibule. What openings are in the vestibule? Describe the cochlea (external and internal structure).
  20. Name the parts of the membranous labyrinth. Describe its arrangement in the bony labyrinth (the relationsbetween the parts of the membranous labyrinth and the parts of the bony labyrinth). How are the parts of the membranous labyrinth connected to each other?
  21. Describe the structure of the vestibular apparatus and its functioning. Describe the structure of the cochlear duct and the Corti organ.
  22. Describe the perilymphatic and endolymphatic space. Describe the circulation of the perilymph and endolymph. Describe the sound conduction in the inner ear.
  23. Describe the olfactory nerves: their location and number. Describe the olfactory tract: the function; the location of the receptors; the number and location of the neuronal bodies; the cortical and subcortical centers of olfaction.
  24. Describe the formation of the optic nerves. Describe their course and parts. Describe the visual pathway: the function; the location of the receptors; the number and location of the neuronal bodies; the formation of the optic chiasm; the subcortical and cortical (projection and association) visual centers.
  25. Describe the oculomotor nerve: the names, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the root; the fiber composition; the way from the skull; the names of the branches; the zones of the innervation.
  26. Describe the trochlear nerve: the name, type and location of its nucleus; the topography of the root; the fiber composition; the way from the skull; the zones of the innervation.
  27. Describe the trigeminal nerve: the names, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the roots; the fiber composition; the names of its divisions; their way from the skull. Name the branches of the ophthalmic nerve and describe their course and the zones of the innervation.
  28. Describe the trigeminal nerve: the names, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the roots; the fiber composition; the names of its divisions; their way from the skull. Name the branches of the maxillary nerve and describe their course and the zones of the innervation.
  29. Describe the trigeminal nerve: the names, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the roots; the fiber composition; the names of its divisions; their way from the skull. Name the branches of the mandibular nerve and and describe their course and the zones of the innervation.
  30. Describe the abducent nerve: the name, type and location of its nucleus; the topography of the root; the fiber composition; the way from the skull; the zones of the innervation.
  31. Describe the facial and intermediate nerves: the names, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the root; the fiber composition; the way from the skull; the names and course of the branches; the zones of the innervation.
  32. Describe vestibulocochlear nerve: the names, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the root; the fiber composition. Describe the vestibular pathway: the function; the location of the receptors; the number and location of the neuronal bodies ; the subcortical and cortical vestibular centers.
  33. Describe vestibulocochlear nerve: the number, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the root; the fiber composition. Describe the cochlear pathway: the function; the location of the receptors; the number and location of the neuronal bodies ; the subcortical and cortical (projection and association) centers of hearing.
  34. Describe the glossopharyngeal nerve: the names, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the root; the fiber composition; the way from the skull; the names of the branches; the zones of the innervation.
  35. Describe the vagus nerve: the names, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the root; the fiber composition; the way from the skull; the names of the branches; the zones of the innervation.
  36. Describe the accessory nerve: the name, types and location of the nuclei; the topography of the root; the fiber composition; the way from the skull; the names of the branches; the zones of the innervation.
  37. Describe the hypoglossal nerve: the name, type and location of its nucleus; the topography of the root; the fiber composition; the way from the skull; the names of the branches; the zones of the innervation.
  38. Describe the location and structure of the hypothalamo-hypophisial system. Name the hormones of the hypothalamus and their effects. Name the hormones of the hypophysis and their effects.
  39. Describe the topography and structure of the thyroid gland. Name the hormones of the gland and their effects.
  40. Describe the topography and structure of the thymus. Name the hormones of the gland and their effects.
  41. Describe the topography and structure of the suprarenal glands. Name the hormones of the glands and their effects.
  42. Describe the structure of the endocrine part of the pancreas. Name its hormones and their effects.
  43. Describe location of the female reproductive glands. Name the hormones of the glands and their effects.
  44. Describe location of the male reproductive glands. Name the hormones of the glands and their effects.

 

Practice:

 Fibrous layer (tunica fibrosa bulbi).

Cornea (cornea)

Sclera (sclera)

Venous sinus of sclera (sinus venosus sclerae)

Vascular layer (tunica vasculosa bulbi)

Iris (iris)

Pupil (pupilla)

Ciliary body (corpus ciliare)

Ciliary processes (processus ciliares)

Choroid (choroidea)

Retina (retina)

Optic part of retina (pars optica retinae)

Ora serrata (ora serrata)

Disc of optic nerve (discus nervi optici)

Yellow spot (macula lutea)

Blind spot (macula caeca)

Anterior chamber of eyeball (camera anterior bulbi)

Posterior chamber of eyeball (camera posterior bulbi)

Lens (lens)

Vitreous body (corpus vitreum)

Superior rectus muscle (musculus rectus superior)

Inferior rectus muscle (musculus rectus inferior)

Lateral rectus muscle (musculus rectus lateralis)

Medial rectus muscle (musculus rectus medialis)

Superior oblique muscle (musculus obliquus superior)

Inferior rectus muscle (musculus obliquus inferior)

Helix (helix)

Antihelix (antihelix)

Tragus (tragus)

Antitragus (antitragus)

Intertragic notch (incisura intertragica)

Auricular lobule (lobulus auricularis)

Crus of helix (crus helicis)

Crus of antihelix (crura antihelicis)

Triangular fossa (fossa triangularis)

Concha of auricle (concha auriculae)

Cymba conchae (cymba conchae)

Cavity of concha (cavitas conchae)

Scapha (scapha)

External acoustic porus  (ostium acusticum externum)

External acoustic meatus (meatus acusticus externus)

Tympanic membrane (membrana tympani)

 

Walls of the tympanic cavity:

Carotid wall (paries caroticus)

Mastoid wall (paries mastoideus)

Jugular wall (paries jugularis)

Labyrinthine wall (paries labyrinthicus)

Tegmental wall (paries tegmentalis)

 

 

Membranous wall (paries membranaceus)

Mastoid antrum (antrum mastoideum)

Mastoid cells (cellulae mastoideae)

Malleus (malleus)

Stapes (stapes)

Incus (incus)

Tensor tympani (musculus tensor tympani)

Stapedius (musculus stapedius)

Tympanic opening of auditory tube  (ostium tympanicum tubae auditivae)

Pharyngeal opening of auditory tube  (ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae)

Vestibule of bony labyrinth (vestibulum)

Oval window (fenestra vestibuli)

Round window (fenestra cochleae)

Anterior semicircular canal (canalis semicircularis anterior)

Posterior semicircular canal (canalis semicircularis posterior)

Lateral semicircular canal (canalis semicircularis lateralis)

Cochlea (cochlea)

Modiolus (modiolus)

Lamina of modiolus (lamina spiralis ossea)

Scala vestibuli (scala vestibuli)

Scala tympani (scala tympani)

Questions for the major Vessels and Nerves of the Limbs

  1. Describe the topography and the parts of the axillary artery. Name the branches of each part and describe the zones which they supply.
  2. Describe the anastomoses of the axillary artery branches.
  3. Describe the topography of the brachial artery and name its branches.
  4. Describe the topography of the radial artery and name its branches.
  5. Describe the topography of the ulnar artery and name its branches.
  6. Describe the arterial anastomoses which surround the elbow.
  7. Describe the arterial anastomoses which surround the wrist.
  8. Describe the superficial palmar arch (formation, topography, branches).
  9. Describe the deep palmar arch (formation, topography, branches).
  10. Describe the blood supply of the dorsal side of the hand.
  11. Describe the blood supply of the fingers. How are the digital arteries arranged in the palm and in the fingers?
  12. Name the superficial and deep veins of the upper limb. Describe their formation and topography. Where do they drain?
  13. Describe the topography of the femoral artery and name its branches.
  14. Describe the anastomoses of the femoral artery branches.
  15. Describe the topography of the popliteal artery and name its branches.
  16. Describe the topography of the anterior tibial artery and name its branches.
  17. Describe the topography of the posterior tibial artery and name its branches.
  18. What arteries supply to the knee. Describe the arterial anastomoses at the knee.
  19. Describe the arterial anastomoses which surround the ankle.
  20. Describe the blood supply of the plantar side of the foot.
  21. Describe the blood supply of the dorsal side of the foot.
  22. Name the superficial and deep veins of the lower limb. Describe their formation and topography. Where do they drain?
  23. Name the branches of the brachial plexus (short and long). Which spinal segments give rise to the nerves of the brachial plexus? Describe the topography of the plexus.
  24. What muscles are innervated by the short branches of the brachial plexus?
  25. Describe the innervation of the brachial muscles.
  26. Describe the innervation of the antebrachial muscles.
  27. Describe the innervation of the hand muscles.
  28. Describe the cutaneous innervation of the upper arm.
  29. Describe the cutaneous innervation of the forearm.
  30. Describe the cutaneous innervation of the hand.
  31. Name the branches of the lumbar plexus. Which spinal segments give rise to the nerves of the lumbar plexus? Describe the topography of the plexus.
  32. What muscles are innervated by the branches of the lumbar plexus?
  33. Name the branches of the sacral plexus (short and long). Which spinal segments give rise to the nerves of the sacral plexus? Describe the topography of the plexus.
  34. What muscles are innervated by the short branches of the lumbar plexus?
  35. Describe the innervation of the femoral muscles.
  36. Describe the innervation of the crural muscles.
  37. Describe the motor innervation of the foot muscles.
  38. Describe the cutaneous innervation of the thigh.
  39. Describe the cutaneous innervation of the leg.
  40. Describe the cutaneous innervation of the foot.

Practice:

  1. Trunks of brachial plexus (superior, middle, inferior);
  2. Long thoracic nerve (nervus thoracicus longus);
  3. Lateral and medial pectoral nerves (nervi pectorales lateralis et medialis);
  4. Subscapular nerve (nervus subscapularis);
  5. Medial brachial cutaneous nerve (nervus cutaneus brachii medialis);
  6. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (nervus cutaneus antebrachii medialis);
  7. Ulnar nerve (nervus ulnaris);
  8. Median nerve (nervus medianus);
  9. Musculocutaneous nerve (nervus musculocutaneus);
  10. Axillary nerve (nervus axillaris);
  11. Radial nerve (nervus radialis);
  12. Axillary artery (arteria axillaris);
  13. Brachial artery (arteria brachialis);
  14. Radial artery (arteria radialis);
  15. Ulnar artery (arteria ulnaris);
  16. Superior thoracic artery (arteria thoracica superior);
  17. Thoracoacromial artery (arteria thoracoacromialis);
  18. Lateral thoracic artery (arteria thoracica lateralis);
  19. Subscapular artery (arteria subscapularis);
  20. Posterior circumflex humeral artery (arteria curcumflexa humeri posterior);
  21. Anterior circumflex humeral artery (arteria curcumflexa humeri anterior);
  22. Deep brachial artery (arteria profunda brachii);
  23. Common interosseous artery (arteria interossea communis);
  24. Superficial (deep) palmar arches;
  25. Foramen qudrilaterum
  26. Foramen trilaterum;
  27. Clavipectoral triangle;
  28. Pectoral triangle;
  29. Subpectoral triangle;
  30. Medial bicipital groove;
  31. Lateral bicipital groove;
  32. Humeromuscular canal;
  33. Cubital fossa;
  34. Lateral anterior cubital groove;
  35. Lateral posterior cubital groove;
  36. Medial anterior cubital groove;
  37. Medial posterior cubital groove;
  38. Canalis supinatorius;
  39. Ulnar canal;
  40. Median groove;
  41. Ulnar groove;
  42. Radial groove;
  43. Carpal canal;
  44. Ulnar carpal canal;
  45. Radial carpal canal;
  46. Hamomuscular canal;
  47. Femoral artery (arteria femoralis);
  48. Deep femoral artery (arteria femoralis profunda);
  49. Superficial epigastric artery (arteria epigastrica superficialis);
  50. Superficial circumflex iliac artery (arteria circumflexa ilium superficialis);
  51. External pudendal arteries (arteriae pudendae internae);
  52. Popliteal artery (arteria poplitea);
  53. Lateral superior genicular artery (arteria genus superior lateralis);
  54. Medial superior genicular artery (arteria genus superior medialis);
  55. Lateral inferior genicular artery (arteria genus inferior lateralis);
  56. Medial inferior genicular artery (arteria genus inferior medialis);
  57. Posterior tibial artery (arteria tibialis posterior);
  58. Anterior tibial artery (arteria tibialis anterior);
  59. Fibular artery (arteria fibularis);
  60. Medial plantar artery (arteria planatris medialis);
  61. Lateral plantar artery (arteria planatris lateralis);
  62. Dorsalis pedis artery (arteria dorsalis pedis);
  63. Great saphenous vein (vena saphena magna);
  64. Femoral vein (vena femoralis);
  65. Iliohypogastric nerve (nervus iliohypogastric nerve);
  66. Ilioinguinal nerve (nervus ilioinguinalis);
  67. Genitofemoral nerves (nervus genitofemoralis);
  68. Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh (nervus cutaneous femoris lateralis);
  69. Obturator nerve (nervus obturatorius);
  70. Femoral nerve (nervus femoralis);
  71. Ulnar nerve (nervus ulnaris);
  72. Saphenus nerve (nervus saphenus);
  73. Sciatic nerve (nervus ischiadicus);
  74. Tibial nerve (nervus tibialis);
  75. Medial plantar nerve (nervus plantaris medialis);
  76. Lateral plantar nerve (nervus plantaris lateralis);
  77. Superficial fibular nerve (nervus fibularis superficialis);
  78. Deep fibular nerve (nervus fibularis profundus);
  79. Lacuna vasorum;
  80. Lacuna musculorum;
  81. Foramen suprapiriforme;
  82. Foramen infrapiriforme;
  83. Femoral triangle (trigonum femorale);
  84. Adductor canal (canalis adductorius);
  85. Popliteal fossa (fossa poplitea);
  86. Cruropopliteal canal (canalis cruropopliteus);
  87. Superior musculoperoneal canal (canalis musculoperoneus superior);
  88. Inferior musculoperoneal canal (canalis musculoperoneus inferior);
  89. Lateral plantar groove (sulcus plantaris lateralis);
  90. Medial plantar groove (sulcus plantaris medialis);

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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