Questions what you should know8

1. The structure of eyeball

2. The accessory visual apparatus

3. The structure of external and middle ear

4. The structure of inner ear

1. The structure of the eyeball

      Importance:

     The main information from the outside to the brain passes through the visual analyzer. Signals received by the cortex are analyzed and synthesized into the visual image. Eye is the higher distant analyzer.

     There are a number of diseases which deprive a person to perceive the world around us visually. The ophthalmology treat such diseases.

      For successful diagnostics and treatment of the eye diseases it is necessary to know its structure.

 

Before you start to study the topic you should know:

  1. The structure of the orbital walls;
  2. The openings of the orbital walls and the communications of the orbit

 

                  Questions:

  1. Name the coats of the eyeball, beginning from the exterior, in order.
  2. What parts of the fibrous layer do you know?
  3. Describe the function of the sclera and cornea.
  4. Describe the properties of the cornea.
  5. Describe the function of the scleral venous sinus.
  6. What parts of the vascular layer do you know?
  7. How is the choroid formed?
  8. Describe the iris, its position and function.
  9. What is the pupil?
  10. Describe the function of the pupil.
  11. Where are the dilator and sphincter muscles located?
  12. What is the iridocorneal angle?
  13. What is the function of the pectinate ligament? Where is it located?
  14. Describe the function of the spaces in the pectinate ligament.
  15. What parts has the ciliary body?
  16. Describe the parts of the ciliary muscle and their action.
  17. Describe the function of the ciliary processes and their location (how many processes exist?).
  18. What parts of the retina do you know?
  19. Describe the layers of the retina; what layer contains photoreceptive cells?
  20. Describe the formation of the optic nerve. What is the optic disc (blind spot)? How is it formed?
  21. Describe the features of the cones and rods.
  22. What is the macula lutea (yellow spot)?
  23. Where is the vitreous body located? Describe its properties and volume.
  24. Where is the anterior chamber of the eye located?
  25. Where is the posterior chamber of the eye located?
  26. Describe the circulation and function of the aqueous humor. What is the volume of this fluid in normal?
  27. Where is the lens located? Describe the properties of the lens.
  28. What are the zonula ciliaris and spatia zonularia? Describe their location and function.
  29. What is the accomodation? Describe its mechanism.
  30. How does the contraction of the ciliary muscle affect the lens? How is the vision changed during this?
  31. Name the refractive media of eyeball.
  32. Where are the anterior and posterior poles of eye?
  33. What are the anatomical, external and internal axes of the eyeball? What are their normal lengths?
  34. What is the visual axis of the eyeball?
  35. What is the equator of the eyeball? What is its normal length?

 

Show on the model:

  1. Fibrous layer (tunica fibrosa bulbi).
  2. Cornea (cornea); limbus of cornea
  3. Sclera (sclera)
  4. Venous sinus of sclera (sinus venosus sclerae)
  5. Vascular layer (tunica vasculosa bulbi)
  6. Iris (iris)
  7. Pupil (pupilla)
  8. Ciliary body (corpus ciliare)
  9. Ciliary processes (processus ciliares)
  10. Corona ciliaris (corona ciliaris)
  11. Choroid (choroidea)
  12. Retina (retina)
  13. Optic part of retina (pars optica retinae)
  14. Ora serrata (ora serrata)
  15. Disc of optic nerve (discus nervi optici)
  16. Yellow spot (macula lutea)
  17. Blind spot (macula caeca)
  18. Anterior chamber of eyeball (camera anterior bulbi)
  19. Posterior chamber of eyeball (camera posterior bulbi)
  20. Lens (lens)
  21. Vitreous body (corpus vitreum)
  22. Iridocorneal angle (angulus iridocornealis)

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Structure of eyeball

2. The accessory visual apparatus.

      Importance:

      To treat the diseases of the auxiliary structures of the eye, a doctor should know their anatomy. In ophthalmologic practice the inflammation of the conjunctiva, obstruction of lacrimal ducts, strabismus are often met.

 

Before you start to study the topic you should know:

  1. The structure of the orbital walls;
  2. The openings of the orbital walls and the communications of the orbit

 

     Questions:

  1. Name the accessory visual structures.
  2. Describe the attachment and function of the fascial sheath of the eyeball.
  3. Describe the location and function of the orbital fat body.
  4. What is the common annular tendon? Describe its function and location.
  5. Which muscle doesn`t start from the common annular tendon?
  6. Nane the extraocular muscles and describe their attachment and action. What are the distances between the limbus of cornea and the attachment of the mucles.
  7. Describe the course of the superior oblique muscle.
  8. Describe the attachment of the levator palpebrae superioris.
  9. Which muscles close (open) the eyelids?
  10. Name in order the layers of the superior eyelid.
  11. Name in order the layers of the inferior eyelid.
  12. Describe the function of the tarsal glands.
  13. Describe the attachment of the palpebral ligaments.
  14. Describe the location and function of the conjunctiva.
  15. Give a definition of the superior and inferior conjunctival fornix.
  16. Give a definition of the conjunctival sac.
  17. Describe the parts of the lacrimal apparatus.
  18. Where is the large lacrimal gland located? Where are its ducts opened?
  19. Where are the small lacrimal glands located?
  20. What is the lacrimal rivus? Where is it formed?
  21. What is the lacrimal punctum (point)? Where can be the lacrimal puncta found?
  22. Describe the location of the lacrimal canaliculi. Where do they open?
  23. Where is the lacrimal sac located? Describe its function.
  24. What muscle affects the lacrimal sac?
  25. Where does the lacrimal sac open?
  26. Where is the nasolacrimal duct located and opened?
  27. Where are the tears absorbed?

 

Show on the model:

  1. Superior rectus muscle (musculus rectus superior)
  2. Inferior rectus muscle (musculus rectus inferior)
  3. Lateral rectus muscle (musculus rectus lateralis)
  4. Medial rectus muscle (musculus rectus medialis)
  5. Superior oblique muscle (musculus obliquus superior)
  6. Inferior rectus muscle (musculus obliquus inferior)

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Muscles of eyeball; Lacrimal apparatus of eye

3. The structure of the external and middle ear

                 Importance

                 To know the external and middle ear anatomy is necessary in medical practice,  especially of ENT – specialists. Anatomy of the middle ear is also needed to understand the biomechanics of the sound wave transmission in the external and middle ear. The connections of middle ear with the other cavities show the possible ways of pus dissemination in case of the middle ear inflammation. The inflammation of the middle ear and surrounding areas often requires surgical intervention; this is impossible to do without the knowledge of the external and middle ear anatomy.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The location of the temporal bone`s pyramid in the skull;
  2. The structure of the temporal bone`s pyramid.
  3. The canals of the temporal bone.

 

     Questions:

  1. What parts does the external ear include?
  2. Describe the structure of the ear auricle. Describe its function.
  3. What parts does the external acoustic meatus consist of?
  4. How does the cartilaginous part of the external acoustic meatus connect to osseous part?
  5. How does the external acoustic meatus end?
  6. Which organ adjoins the inferior and anterior walls of the external acoustic meatus?
  7. Where is the superior wall of the osseous meatus directed?
  8. What part of the skull adjoins the posterior wall of the osseous meatus?
  9. What is the practical importance of the osseous meatus`s posterior wall?
  10. Describe the shape of the external acoustic meatus.
  11. Describe the features of the skin lining the cartilaginous and osseous meatus.
  12. Describe the function and clinical importance of the cartilaginous notches of the external acoustic meatus.
  13. What parts does the middle ear include?
  14. What is the tympanic cavity? What is its volume? What structures does it include? What is the medium in the tympanic cavity?
  15. Name and describe the lateral wall of the tympanic cavity.
  16. Name and describe the anterior wall of the tympanic cavity.
  17. Name and describe the inferior wall of the tympanic cavity.
  18. Name and describe the posterior wall of the tympanic cavity.
  19. Name and describe the medial wall of the tympanic cavity.
  20. Name and describe the superior wall of the tympanic cavity.
  21. Describe the malleus, incus and stapes.
  22. Describe the joints between the auditory ossicles.
  23. Describe the attachment of the tensor tympani and stapedius.
  24. Describe the functioning of the tensor tympani and stapedius.
  25. How are the auditory ossicles attached to the walls of the tympanic cavity?
  26. What is the auditory tube? What cavities does it connect? What is its function?
  27. Where is the tympanic opening of auditory tube?
  28. Where is the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube?
  29. What parts does the auditory tube include? What are the functional differences between them?
  30. What muscles are attached to the cartilaginous part of the auditory tube and dilate it?
  31. Describe the sound conduction in the external ear.
  32. Describe the sound conduction in the middle ear.

 

Show on the model:

  1. Helix (helix)
  2. Antihelix (antihelix)
  3. Tragus (tragus)
  4. Antitragus (antitragus)
  5. Intertragic notch (incisura intertragica)
  6. Auricular lobule (lobulus auricularis)
  7. Crus of helix (crus helicis)
  8. Crus of antihelix (crura antihelicis)
  9. Triangular fossa (fossa triangularis)
  10. Concha of auricle (concha auriculae)
  11. Cymba conchae (cymba conchae)
  12. Cavity of concha (cavitas conchae)
  13. Scapha (scapha)
  14. External acoustic porus (ostium acusticum externum)
  15. External acoustic meatus (meatus acusticus externus)
  16. Tympanic membrane (membrana tympani)

 

Walls of the tympanic cavity:

  1. Carotid wall (paries caroticus)
  2. Mastoid wall (paries mastoideus)
  3. Jugular wall (paries jugularis)
  4. Labyrinthine wall (paries labyrinthicus)
  5. Tegmental wall (paries tegmentalis)
  6. Membranous wall (paries membranaceus)
  7. Mastoid antrum (antrum mastoideum)
  8. Mastoid cells (cellulae mastoideae)
  9. Malleus (malleus)
  10. Stapes (stapes)
  11. Incus (incus)
  12. Tensor tympani (musculus tensor tympani)
  13. Stapedius (musculus stapedius)
  14. Tympanic opening of auditory tube (ostium tympanicum tubae auditivae)
  15. Paryngeal opening of auditory tube (ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae)

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Structure of tympanic cavity

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

4. The structure of the inner ear

            Importance:

            The inner ear contains the peripheral parts of statokinetic and auditory analyzers. The damage to the inner ear often leads to hearing loss and impaired motor coordination and balance. The treatment of the diseases of all the ear parts requires a good knowledge of inner ear anatomy and topography.

 

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The location of the temporal bone`s pyramid in the skull;
  2. The location of the arcuate eminence, external aperture of vestibular aqueduct and external aperture of cochlear canaliculus in the pyramid.
  3. The structure and functioning of the external and middle ear.

 

Questions:

  1. Where is the inner ear located?
  2. What parts does the bony labyrinth include? How is it arranged in the pyramid of the temporal bone?
  3. Describe the vestibule of the bony labyrinth. 
  4. Describe the position of the lateral wall of the vestibule.
  5. Describe the position of the medial wall of the vestibule.
  6. Describe inner surface of the medial wall of the vestibule.
  7. Where is the spherical recess sited (closer to the cochlea or semicircular canals)?
  8. What part of the membranous labyrinth is in the spherical recess?
  9. Where is the elliptical recess placed (closer to the cochlea or to semicircular canals)?
  10. What part of the membranous labyrinth is in the elliptical recess?
  11. What structure separates the spherical and elliptical recesses?
  12. Which openings can be found in the lateral wall of the vestibule?
  13. Which opening is in the medial wall of the vestibule?
  14. What structures close the fenestrae vestibuli and cochleae?
  15. What openings are on the anterior wall of the vestibule? Which parts of the bony labyrinth open by these openings on the anterior wall?
  16. Where is the cochlear recess located? What part of the membranous labyrinth is placed here?
  17. What maculae has the vestibule? Describe their function and location.
  18. Describe the structure of the semicircular canals. Define the simple limb, common limb, bony ampulla. What parts of the membranous labyrinth do they contain?
  19. Describe the cochlea: its position, external structure. What part of the membranous labyrinth does it contain?
  20. What is the modiolus? What is the function of its longitudinal canals?
  21. Where is the lamina of modiolus located?
  22. What is the osseous spiral lamina? Describe its position.
  23. What is the spiral canal? Describe its position and content.
  24. Describe the parts of the membranous labyrinth. How are the parts of the membranous labyrinth connected together?
  25. What is the perilymphatic space?
  26. Where do the perilymph and endolymph circulate?
  27. Describe the central part of the membranous labyrinth.
  28. What is the ductus reuniens?
  29. Describe the beginning and the end of the endolymphatic duct?
  30. Where is the endolymphatic sac located?
  31. Describe the function of the endolymphatic duct and sac.
  32. Where are receptors of the vestibular analyzer located?
  33. Where are the ampullary crests located? Describe their functioning.
  34. Describe the cochlear duct: its position, beginning, end.
  35. Name the walls of the cochlear duct and describe their position.
  36. Describe the structure, location and function of the spiral organ.
  37. Define the scalae vestibule and tympani.
  38. What is helicotrema? Describe its position and borders.
  39. Where is the perilymph produced and absorbed?
  40. Where is the endolymph produced and absorbed?
  41. Describe the sound conduction in the inner ear.
  42. Describe the functioning of the vestibular apparatus.

 

Show on the model:

  1. Vestibule of bony labyrinth (vestibulum)
  2. Oval window (fenestra vestibuli)
  3. Round window (fenestra cochleae)
  4. Anterior semicircular canal (canalis semicircularis anterior)
  5. Posterior semicircular canal (canalis semicircularis posterior)
  6. Lateral semicircular canal (canalis semicircularis lateralis)
  7. Cochlea (cochlea)
  8. Modiolus (modiolus)
  9. Lamina of modiolus (lamina spiralis ossea)
  10. Scala vestibuli (scala vestibuli)
  11. Scala tympani (scala tympani)

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Structure of labyrinth; Structure of cochlea

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

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