Questions what you should know9

The internal carotid artery

The external carotid artery

The subclavian artery

The thoracic aorta: branches and topography. The system of the superior vena cava. The arteries and veins of the thoracic walls. The veins of the head and neck. 

Major vessels of the head, neck and chest

The abdominal aorta

The internal and external iliac arteries

The system of the inferior vena cava. The portal vein. Porto-caval and cava-caval anastomoses. Fetal circulation.

Major Blood supply and venous drainage and innervation of abdominal  viscera. 

The vessels of the upper limb

The vessels of the lower limb

The lymphatic system

 

The internal carotid artery

In medical practice pathology associated with cerebral circulation impairment is often met. To make a correct diagnosis, to determine the localization of the pathological process and choose correct treatment it is necessary to know  the anatomy of the cerebral vascular system in details. For the diagnostics and treatment of eye diseases it is necessary to know the anatomy of the ophthalmic artery and its branches.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The topography of the neck;
  2. The carotid and optic canals.
  3. The structure of the orbit.
  4. The topography of the inferior cerebral surface.

Questions:

  1. Name the arterial systems in the head and neck.
  2. Describe the origin and course of the common carotid arteries, external and internal carotid arteries. Where is the level of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery?
  3. Describe the course of the internal carotid artery. What parts of the internal carotid artery do you know?
  4. Name the branches of each part of the internal carotid artery. What organs do they supply? What part does not give off branches?
  5. Name the terminal branches of the internal carotid artery.
  6. Describe the location of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries, posterior communicating arteries and anterior choroid arteries. What parts of the brain do they supply?
  7. Describe the course and branches of the ophthalmic artery. What organs do they supply?

Written task: Write all the anastomoses of the internal carotid artery branches with the branches of other arterial systems.

Practice:

  1. Ascending aorta (pars ascendens aortae);
  2. Aortic arch (arcus aorticus);
  3. Brachiocephalic trunk (truncus brachiocephalicus);
  4. Common carotid artery (arteria carotis communis);
  5. External carotid artery (arteria carotis externa);
  6. Internal carotid artery (arteria carotis interna) in the cadaver and on the anatomical preparation of the brain;
  7. Anterior cerebral artery (arteria cerebri anterior);
  8. Middle cerebral artery (arteria cerebri media);
  9. Anterior choroid artery (arteria choroidea anterior);
  10. Posterior communicating artery (arteria communicans posterior);
  11. Anterior communicating artery (arteria communicans anterior);

To print the diagram for the topic click here Terminal branches of internal carotid artery and Willis`s circle

To prepare the topic see General angiology and Arteries of the head and neck and Arterial anastomoses of the head and neck 

External Carotid Artery

Importance:

           External carotid artery supplies blood to the external part of the head and neck: muscle, glands, oral cavity organs, pharynx, larynx, auricle, dura mater etc. These vital organs are often exposed to a variety of pathological processes and surgical interventions. All this necessitates the knowledge of the anatomy of the external carotid artery, its branches and area of blood supply.

 

Before the study of the topic you should know:

  1. The branches of the aortic arch and their passage;
  2. The passage of the common carotid artery;
  3. The topography of the neck;
  4. The following structures of the skull: infratemporal fossa, pterygopalatine fossa, foramen spinosum, sphenopalatine foramen, greater palatine canal, infraorbital canal and foramen, mandibular canal, mental foramen, petrotympanic fussure, stylomastoid foramen, mastoid foramen, parietal foramen, groove for occipital artery, fossula petrosa, jugular foramen.

 

Questions:

  1. Describe the passage of the external carotid artery in the neck.
  2. What groups of the branches is the external carotid artery divided into?
  3. Name the branches of the anterior group, describe their passage and anastomoses.
  4. Name the branches of the superior thyroid artery. What organs do they supply?
  5. Name the branches of the lingual artery. What organs do they supply?
  6. Name the branches of the facial artery. What organs do they supply?
  7. Name the branches of the posterior group, describe their passage and anastomoses.
  8. Name the branches of the occipital artery. What organs do they supply?
  9. Name the branches of the posterior auricular artery. What organs do they supply?
  10. What artery belongs to the medial group? Describe its passage and name its branches. What organs do its branches supply?
  11. List the terminal branches of the external carotid artery, describe their passage and anastomoses.
  12. List the branches of the superficial temporal artery. What organs do they supply?
  13. Describe the parts of the maxillary artery.
  14. List the branches of each part of the maxillary artery. What organs do they supply?

 

Written task:

  1. Using the previous topic, describe in written form the blood supply of the following organs: eyeball, eyelids, extraocular muscles, lacrimal gland, masticatory muscles, tympanic cavity, dura mater, teeth, muscles of facial expression, nasal mucosa, external nose, lips, suprahyoid muscles, major salivary glands, palatine tonsils, tongue, hard and soft palate.
  2. Write all anastomoses between the branches of the external carotid artery and the branches of the internal carotid and subclavian arteries.

Practice:

  1. Aortic arch (arcus aorticus);
  2. Brachiocephalic trunk (truncus brachiocephalicus);
  3. Common carotid artery (arteria carotis communis);
  4. External carotid artery (arteria carotis externa);
  5. Internal carotid artery (arteria carotis interna);
  6. Superior thyroid artery (arteria thyroidea superior);
  7. Lingual artery (arteria lingualis);
  8. Facial artery (arteria facialis);
  9. Angular artery (arteria angularis);
  10. Occipital artery (arteria occipitalis);
  11. Posterior auricular artery (arteria auricularis posterior);
  12. Superficial temporal artery (arteria temporalis superficialis);
  13. Maxillary artery (arteria maxillaris)

To prepare the topic see General angiology and Arteries of the head and neck and Arterial anastomoses of the head and neck 

Subclavian Artery

Importance:

            This material is needed for studying of the next anatomy topics (blood supply of the thoracic and abdominal walls, of the upper limb). This knowledge will help you to make the correct diagnosis in diseases of the internal organs and nervous system, associated with blood circulation impairment. Also this material is used in surgery and traumatology to choose the correct place of the ligation of the vessels in case of their injury.

             Besides, the study of this topic allows you to learn and understand the general pattern of development, distribution and branching of arterial vessels.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The branches of the aortic arch and their course;
  2. The topography of the neck (muscle groups; triangles; facial spaces);
  3. The topography of the inferior cerebral surface;
  4. The structure of the thorax (thoracic walls; position of thoracic organs).

Questions:

  1. Describe the origin and topography of the subclavian arteries. How do they end (what artery is the continuation of the subclavian artery)? Where do they end (at which level)?
  2. What parts of the subclavian artery do you know? Explain the principles of the division of the subclavian artery.
  3. Name the branches of the first part of the subclavian artery.
  4. Describe the origin and course of the vertebral artery. How does it end? Name its branches and the branches of the basilar artery. Which organs do they supply? What parts of the brain are supplied by the branches of the vertebral and basilar arteries? Describe the position of the basilar artery.
  5. Name all the arteries forming the circle of Willis. Which of them are from the internal carotid artery, and which are from the system of the subclavian (vertebral) artery?
  6. Describe the origin, course and terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery. Name its branches. Which organs do they supply with blood? Describe the anastomoses between the branches of the internal thoracic artery and other arterial systems.
  7. Name the branches of the thyrocervical trunk. Name the branches of the inferior thyroid artery. Which organs do they supply with blood?
  8. Describe the way of the ascending cervical artery. Which muscles do its branches supply with blood?
  9. Describe the course of the superficial cervical artery. Which muscles do its branches supply with blood?
  10. Describe the course of the suprascapular artery. Which muscles do its branches supply with blood? What intersystem anastomosis does the suprascapular artery form?
  11. What artery arises from the second part of the subclavian artery? What branches does it give off? What regions do they supply with blood?
  12. What artery starts from the third part of the subclavian artery? What muscles does it supply with blood?

Written task:

  1. Write all anastomoses between the branches of the subclavian artery and branches of other arterial systems.
  2. Using the previous topic, describe in written form the blood supply of the brain (write in order the parts of the brain and the arteries supplying this part).
  3. Using the previous topic , describe in written form the blood supply of the following organs: thyroid gland, larynx, pharynx, muscles of the neck.

Practice:

  1. Aortic arch (arcus aorticus);
  2. Brachiocephalic trunk (truncus brachiocephalicus);
  3. Right and left subclavian arteries (arteriae subclaviae dextra et sinistra): beginning, end and the parts;
  4. Vertebral artery (arteria vertebralis);
  5. Thyrocervical trunk (truncus thyrocervicalis);
  6. Inferior thyroid artery (arteria thyroidea inferior);
  7. Suprascapular artery (arteria suprascapularis);
  8. Internal thoracic artery (arteria thoracica interna);
  9. Superior epigastric artery (artria epigastrica superior);
  10. Anterior intercostal artery (arteria intercostalis anterior);
  11. Transverse cervical artery (arteria transversa colli);
  12. Costocervical trunk (truncus costocervicalis)

To prepare the topic see General angiology and Arteries of the head and neck and Arterial anastomoses of the head and neck 

The thoracic aorta: branches and topography. The system of the superior vena cava. The arteries and veins of the thoracic walls. The veins of the head and neck.

Importance:

      The thoracic aorta supplies to the posterolateral walls of the thoracic cavity, the diaphragm, bronchi and lungs, oesophageal walls, pericardium, the lymph nodes and  connective tissue of the posterior mediastinum. The superior vena cava collects the blood from the head and neck, upper limbs and thoracic walls. To know this topic is necessary for surgeons, therapeutists, neurologists in lesions of the thoracic organs.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The topography of the neck;
  2. The structure of the thorax.
  3. The structure of the mediastinum.
  4. Topography and branches of the internal thoracic artery.
  5. The structure of the diaphragm.

Questions (Use the material System of Superior Vena Cava):

  1. Describe the aorta: its beginning, end, parts and the topography of its thoracic part.
  2. What types of the thoracic aorta`s branches do you know?
  3. Name the visceral branches of the thoracic aorta and describe their anastomoses. What organs do they supply with blood?
  4. Name the parietal branches of the thoracic aorta, describe their course and anastomoses. What organs do they supply with blood?
  5. How is the superior vena cava formed? Describe its topography.
  6. What vein drains into the superior vena cava directly?
  7. Describe the topography of the azygos vein. How is it formed? Where does it drain into? Name the tributaries of the azygos vein.
  8. Describe the topography of the hemiazygos vein. How is it formed? Where does it drain? Name the tributaries of the hemiazygos vein.
  9. How are the brachiocephalic veins formed? Describe their topography.
  10. Name the tributaries of the brachiocephalic veins. Describe the tributaries of the veins which open into the brachiocephalic veins. What organs do they drain?
  11. Where does the internal jugular vein arise? Describe its topography.
  12. Describe the intracranial tributaries of the internal jugular vein: dural sinuses, diploic veins, emissary veins, meningeal veins, cerebral veins, orbital and labyrinthine veins.
  13. Describe the extracranial tributaries of the internal jugular vein.
  14. How is the external jugular vein formed? Where does it drain? Describe is topography and tributaries.
  15. Describe the venous anastomoses of the head.
  16. How are the anterior jugular veins formed? Where do they open? Describe their topography and anastomoses.

To prepare the topic watch Videomaterials

Written task:

  1. Using the previous topics, describe in written form the blood supply of the following organs: bronchi, trachea and lungs, oesophagus, pericardium, heart; the blood supply of the thoracic walls: ribs, proper chest muscles, sternum.
  2. Describe in written form the drainage of the following organs: eyeball, eyelids, extraocular muscles, lacrimal gland, masticatory muscles, tympanic cavity, dura mater, teeth, muscles of facial expression, nasal mucosa, external nose, lips, major salivary glands, palatine tonsils, tongue, hard and soft palate, thyroid gland, larynx, pharynx, muscles of the neck, bronchi, trachea and lungs, oesophagus, pericardium, heart, ribs, proper chest muscles, sternum.

Practice:

  1. Thoracic aorta (pars thoracica aortae);
  2. Posterior intercostal arteries (arteriae intercostales posterioris);
  3. Superior vena cava (vena cava superior);
  4. Brachiocephalic veins (venae brachiocephalicae);
  5. Internal jugular vein (vena jugularis interna);
  6. Subclavian veins (venae subclaviae);
  7. Internal thoracic vein (vena thoracica interna);
  8. Azygos vein (vena azygos);
  9. Hemiazygos vein (vena hemiazygos)
  10. Facial vein (vena facialis);
  11. Retromandibular vein (vena retromandibularis)

Major Vessels of the Head, Neck and Chest

Questions:

  1. Describe the topography of the common carotid arteries, and topography of the internal and external carotid arteries.
  2. Name the branches of the internal carotid artery, describe their topography and regions, which they supply with blood.
  3. Name the branches of the anterior and middle groups of the external carotid artery, describe their topography and regions, which they supply with blood.
  4. Name the branches of the posterior group of the external carotid artery, describe their topography and regions, which they supply with blood.
  5. Name the terminal branches of the external carotid artery, describe their topography and regions, which they supply with blood.
  6. Describe the parts of the subclavian artery. Name the branches of the first part of the subclavian artery and describe their topography and the regions, which they supply with blood.
  7. Name the branches of the second part of the subclavian artery and describe their topography and the regions, which they supply with blood.
  8. Name the branches of the third part of the subclavian artery and describe their topography and the regions, which they supply with blood.
  9. Describe the anastomoses of the internal carotid artery.
  10. Describe the anastomoses of the external carotid artery.
  11. Describe the anastomoses of the subclavian artery.
  12. Describe the cervical plexus: formation, topography, branches, regions of innervation.
  13. Describe the aorta: beginning, end, parts, topography. Name the branches of the thoracic aorta (parietal and visceral). Describe the regions, which they supply with blood.
  14. Describe the anastomoses of the thoracic aorta.
  15. Describe the blood supply and drainage of the eyeball, tongue, salivary glands, gums and teeth, larynx, oesophagus, pharynx, trachea and bronchi and lungs, heart and pericardium.

Practice:

  1. Ascending aorta (pars ascendens aortae);
  2. Aortic arch (arcus aorticus);
  3. Brachiocephalic trunk (truncus brachiocephalicus);
  4. Common carotid artery (arteria carotis communis);
  5. External carotid artery (arteria carotis externa);
  6. Internal carotid artery (arteria carotis interna) in the cadaver and on the anatomical preparation of the brain;
  7. Anterior cerebral artery (arteria cerebri anterior);
  8. Middle cerebral artery (arteria cerebri media);
  9. Anterior choroid artery (arteria choroidea anterior);
  10. Posterior communicating artery (arteria communicans posterior);
  11. Anterior communicating artery (arteria communicans anterior);
  12. Brachiocephalic trunk (truncus brachiocephalicus);
  13. Common carotid artery (arteria carotis communis);
  14. External carotid artery (arteria carotis externa);
  15. Internal carotid artery (arteria carotis interna);
  16. Superior thyroid artery (arteria thyroidea superior);
  17. Lingual artery (arteria lingualis);
  18. Facial artery (arteria facialis);
  19. Angular artery (arteria angularis);
  20. Occipital artery (arteria occipitalis);
  21. Posterior auricular artery (arteria auricularis posterior);
  22. Superficial temporal artery (arteria temporalis superficialis);
  23. Maxillary artery (arteria maxillaris)
  24. Right and left subclavian arteries (arteriae subclaviae dextra et sinistra);
  25. Vertebral artery (arteria vertebralis);
  26. Thyrocervical trunk (truncus thyrocervicalis);
  27. Inferior thyroid artery (arteria thyroidea inferior);
  28. Suprascapular artery (arteria suprascapularis);
  29. Internal thoracic artery (arteria thoracica interna);
  30. Superior epigastric artery (artria epigastrica superior);
  31. Anterior intercostal artery (arteria intercostalis anterior);
  32. Transverse cervical artery (arteria transversa colli);
  33. Costocervical trunk (truncus costocervicalis);
  34. Intercostal nerves (nervi intercostales);
  35. Diaphragmatic nerve (nervus diaphragmaticus);
  36. Cervical plexus (plexus cervicalis);
  37. Thoracic aorta (pars thoracica aortae);
  38. Posterior intercostal arteries (arteriae intercostales posterioris);
  39. Superior vena cava (vena cava superior);
  40. Brachiocephalic veins (venae brachiocephalicae);
  41. Internal jugular vein (vena jugularis interna);
  42. Subclavian veins (venae subclaviae);
  43. Internal thoracic vein (vena thoracica interna);
  44. Azygos vein (vena azygos);
  45. Hemiazygos vein (vena hemiazygos);
  46. Facial vein (vena facialis);
  47. Retromandibular vein (vena retromandibularis)

Abdominal aorta

Importance:

      Visceral branches of the abdominal aorta are involved in the blood supply of the stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas, spleen, small and large intestine and other organs. These organs are often subjected to pathological processes and surgical operations. This necessitates to know the anatomy of the abdominal aorta`s unpaired visceral branches and the regions which they supply with blood for the doctors of any profile.

      For proper treatment of the visceral diseases, a doctor needs to know not only the structure of the organs but also the blood supply. Therefore, to know the anatomy of the paired visceral and parietal branches is important for surgeons and therapeutists.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure of the abdominal walls and abdominal cavity;
  2. The location of the abdominal viscera;
  3. The parts and position of the aorta.

Questions:

  1. Describe the topography of the abdominal aorta.
  2. What types of the abdominal aorta`s branches do you know?
  3. Name the unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta.
  4. Describe the topography of the coeliac trunk and name its branches.
  5. Describe the topography and anastomoses of the left gastric artery. What organ does it supply with blood?
  6. Describe the topography of the common hepatic artery, its branches and their anastomoses. What organs do its branches supply with blood?
  7. Describe the topography of the splenic artery, its branches and their anastomoses. What organs do its branches supply with blood?
  8. Describe the topography of the superior mesenteric artery, its branches and their anastomoses. What organs do its branches supply with blood?
  9. Describe the topography of the inferior mesenteric artery, its branches and their anastomoses. What organs do its branches supply with blood?
  10. Name the paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta.
  11. Describe the topography and the branches of the renal arteries.
  12. Describe the topography of the testicular (ovarian) arteries and their anastomoses. What organs do its branches supply with blood? Why these organs (which are not located in the abdominal cavity) are supplied by the branches of the aorta?
  13. Describe the topography of the middle suprarenal arteries and their anastomoses.
  14. Name the parietal branches of the abdominal aorta; describe their topography, anastomoses and regions which they supply with blood.
  15. Describe the anastomoses between the branches of the thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta and between the branches of the abdominal aorta.
  16. Describe the anastomoses the abdominal aorta`s branches and the branches of other arterial systems.

Written task:

Describe in written form the blood supply of the following organs: liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, kidney, suprarenal glands, diaphragm.

Practical Skills:

  1. Abdominal aorta (pars thoracica aortae);
  2. Coeliac trunk (truncus coeliacus);
  3. Left gastric artery (arteria gastrica sinistra);
  4. Common hepatic artery (arteria hepatica communis);
  5. Proper hepatic artery (arteria hepatica propria);
  6. Right gastric artery (arteria gastrica dextra);
  7. Right gastroepiploic artery (arteria gastroepiploica dextra);
  8. Gastroduodenal artery (arteria gastroduodenalis);
  9. Splenic artery (arteria lienalis);
  10. Left gastroepiploic artery (arteria gastroepiploica sinistra);
  11. Superior mesenteric artery (arteria mesenterica superior);
  12. Jejunal arteries (arteriae jejunales);
  13. Ileal arteries (arteriae ileales);
  14. Right colic artery (arteria colica dextra);
  15. Middle colic artery (arteria colica media);
  16. Inferior mesenteric artery (arteria mesenterica inferior);
  17. Left colic artery (arteria colica sinistra);
  18. Sigmoid arteries (arteriae sigmoideae);
  19. Superior rectal artery (arteria rectalis superior);
  20. Renal artery (arteria renalis);
  21. Median sacral artery (arteria sacralis mediana);
  22. Ovarian (testicular) artery (arteria ovarica (testicularis));
  23. Lumbar arteries (arteriae lumbales);
  24. Inpherior phrenic artery (arteria phrenica inferior)

To print the diagram for the topic click here The unpaired visceral branches of abdominal aorta

 

The internal and external iliac arteries

Importance:

      In clinical practice the diseases of the pelvic organs are often observed. To treat these diseases successfully, to make the operations on the pelvic organs, a doctor must know the blood supply to these organs: the branches and topography of the external and internal iliac arteries.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure of the abdominal and pelvic walls (pay attention to the lacuna vasorum, suprapiriforme, infrapiriforme and lesser sciatic foramina);
  2. The topography and branches of the abdominal aorta.

Questions:

  1. Describe the topography of the common iliac arteries (beginning, end, location).
  2. Describe the topography of the external iliac arteries (beginning, end, location).
  3. Describe the branches of the external iliac artery, regions of their blood supply and their anastomoses.
  4. Describe the topography of the internal iliac artery.
  5. Name the branches of the anterior and posterior trunks of the internal iliac artery.
  6. Describe the topography, regions of the blood supply and anastomoses of the anaterior trunk`s branches: umbilical artery, inferior vesical artery, middle rectal artery, ductus deferentis artery (uterine artery), internal pudendal artery, obturator artery, inferior gluteal artery.
  7. Describe the topography, regions of the blood supply and anastomoses of the posterior trunk`s branches: iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, inferior gluteal artery.
  8. Name the visceral branches of the internal iliac artery in the male pelvis.
  9. Name the visceral branches of the internal iliac artery in the female pelvis.

The task:

  1. Write the anastomoses between the branches of internal iliac artery (intrasystem), and the branches of internal iliac artery with the branches of the abdominal aorta (intersystem).
  2. Write the anastomoses between the branches of internal iliac artery and external iliac artery; between the branches of external iliac artery and the branches of the abdominal aorta and subclavian artery.
  3. Describe the blood supply to the following organs: rectum, uterus, urinary bladder, ureters, ovaries, uterine tubes, vagina, testes, deferent ducts, prostate, seminal vesicles, external male and female reproductive organs, abdominal muscles.

Practice:

  1. Common iliac artery (arteria iliaca communis);
  2. External iliac artery (arteria iliaca externa);
  3. Internal iliac artery (arteria iliaca interna);
  4. Umbilical artery (arteria umbilicalis);
  5. Uterine (ductus deferentis) artery (arteria uterina (ductus deferentis))
  6. Obturator artery (arteria obturatoria);
  7. Iliolumbar artery (arteria iliolumbalis);
  8. Lateral sacral artery (arteria sacralis lateralis);
  9. Superior gluteal artery (arteria glutea superior);
  10. Inferior epigastric artery (arteria epigastrica inferior)

To watch the video about the topic click here The internal iliac artery

To print the diagram for the topic click here The branches of the internal iliac artery

The system of the inferior vena cava. The portal vein. Porto-caval and cava-caval anastomoses. Fetal circulation.

      Importance:

      To treat the visceral diseases properly, a doctor needs to know not only the organ structure, but also its blood supply and drainage.

      To unerstand pathophysiology of the liver diseases, it is important to know the porto-caval and cava-caval anastomoses.

     To understand the mechanisms of congenital cardiac defects, their symptoms and  treatment, it is necessary to know the fetal circulation.

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The structure of abdominal walls.
  2. The structure of the heart`s chambers.
  3. The structure of the porta hepatis.
  4. The big and small circulations.

Questions:

  1. Describe the topography of the inferior vena cava, its beginning and end.
  2. Describe the parietal tributaries of the inferior vena cava.
  3. Describe the visceral tributaries of the inferior vena cava.
  4. Describe the topography of the common iliac veins.
  5. Describe the topography of the internal iliac vein.
  6. Describe the parietal tributaries of the internal iliac vein.
  7. Describe the visceral tributaries of the internal iliac vein.
  8. Describe the venous plexuses situated in the male and female pelvis.
  9. Describe the beginning and end of the external iliac vein.
  10. Describe the topography of the external iliac vein and its tributaries.
  11. Describe the topography and formation of the portal vein and its roots. For what the portal vein brings deoxygenated blood into the liver?
  12. Describe the tributaries of the portal vein roots.
  13. From which organs does the inferior vena cava take the blood? From which organs does the portal vein take the blood?
  14. Describe the porto-caval and cava-caval anastomoses. What is their practical importance? 
  15. Describe the fetal blood circulation. How does the blood come to fetus and leave it? Why this blood is mixed? What features has the fetal circulation in comparison with the blood circulation after birth? Describe the fetal shunts and their transformation.

To prepare the topic watch Videomaterials

See the table Anastomoses

Written task:

Describe in written form the drainage of the following organs: liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, kidney, suprarenal glands, diaphragm, rectum, uterus, urinary bladder, ureters, ovaries, uterine tubes, vagina, testes, deferent ducts, prostate, seminal vesicles, external male and female reproductive organs, abdominal walls.

Practice:

  1. Inferior vena cava (vena cava inferior);
  2. Lumbar veins (venae lumbales);
  3. Testicular (ovarian) vein (vena testicularis (ovarica));
  4. Renal vein (vena renalis);
  5. Common iliac veins (vena iliaca communis);
  6. External iliac vein (vena iliaca externa);
  7. Internal iliac vein (vena iliaca interna);
  8. Portal vein (vena portae);
  9. Superior mesenteric vein (vena mesenterica superior);
  10. Splenic vena (vena splenica);
  11. Inferior mesenteric vein (vena mesenterica inferior)

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

To print the diagrams for the topic click here Porto-caval and cava-caval anastomoses. Fetal circulation

 Major Blood supply and venous drainage and innervation of abdominal  viscera.

  1. Describe the aorta: beginning, end, parts, topography. Name the unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Describe the branches of each unpaired visceral branch and the regions of the blood supply.
  1. Describe the aorta: beginning, end, parts, topography. Name the paired visceral and parietal branches of the abdominal aorta. Describe the regions of the blood supply..
  1. Describe the anastomoses of the abdominal aorta.
  1. Describe the common iliac artery, external and internal iliac artery. Name the branches of the external iliac artery, the regions of the blood supply and their anastomoses.
  1. Describe the common iliac artery, external and internal iliac artery. Name the parietal branches of the internal iliac artery, their topography, the regions of the blood supply and their anastomoses.
  1. Describe the common iliac artery, external and internal iliac artery. Name the visceral branches of the internal iliac artery, their topography, the regions of the blood supply and their anastomoses.
  1. Describe the formation, end and topography of the inferior vena cava. Which vein opens into inferior vena cava?
  1. Describe the formation, end and topography of the inferior vena cava. Name and describe the tributaries (parietal and visceral) of the inferior vena cava.
  2. Describe the pelvic venous plexuses . Describe the tributaries of the internal iliac vein.
  1. Describe the formation, end, topography of the portal vein.
  1. Describe the cava-caval anastomoses.
  1. Describe the porto-caval anastomoses.
  1. Name the suprasegmental centres of the vegetative system. Describe the segmental centres of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
  2. Describe the effects of of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. What organs have no parasympathetic innervation?
  1. Describe the sympathetic reflex arch.
  1. Describe the parasympathetic reflex arch.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the eyeball.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the tongue.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the salivary glands.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the gums and teeth.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the larynx.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the pharynx.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the oesophagus.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the trachea and bronchi.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the heart.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the diaphragm.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the pericardium.
  2. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the stomach.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the pancreas.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the spleen.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the small intestine.
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the large intestine (including the rectum).
  1. Describe the blood supply, drainage and innervation (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the urinary bladder.

Practical part

  1. Ascending aorta (pars ascendens aortae);
  2. Aortic arch (arcus aorticus);
  3. Brachiocephalic trunk (truncus brachiocephalicus);
  4. Common carotid artery (arteria carotis communis);
  5. External carotid artery (arteria carotis externa);
  6. Internal carotid artery (arteria carotis interna) in the cadaver and on the anatomical preparation of the brain;
  7. Anterior cerebral artery (arteria cerebri anterior);
  8. Middle cerebral artery (arteria cerebri media);
  9. Anterior choroid artery (arteria choroidea anterior);
  10. Posterior communicating artery (arteria communicans posterior);
  11. Anterior communicating artery (arteria communicans anterior);
  12. Brachiocephalic trunk (truncus brachiocephalicus);
  13. Common carotid artery (arteria carotis communis);
  14. External carotid artery (arteria carotis externa);
  15. Internal carotid artery (arteria carotis interna);
  16. Superior thyroid artery (arteria thyroidea superior);
  17. Lingual artery (arteria lingualis);
  18. Facial artery (arteria facialis);
  19. Angular artery (arteria angularis);
  20. Occipital artery (arteria occipitalis);
  21. Posterior auricular artery (arteria auricularis posterior);
  22. Superficial temporal artery (arteria temporalis superficialis);
  23. Maxillary artery (arteria maxillaris)
  24. Right and left subclavian arteries (arteriae subclaviae dextra et sinistra);
  25. Vertebral artery (arteria vertebralis);
  26. Thyrocervical trunk (truncus thyrocervicalis);
  27. Inferior thyroid artery (arteria thyroidea inferior);
  28. Suprascapular artery (arteria suprascapularis);
  29. Internal thoracic artery (arteria thoracica interna);
  30. Superior epigastric artery (artria epigastrica superior);
  31. Anterior intercostal artery (arteria intercostalis anterior);
  32. Transverse cervical artery (arteria transversa colli);
  33. Costocervical trunk (truncus costocervicalis);
  34. Intercostal nerves (nervi intercostales);
  35. Diaphragmatic nerve (nervus diaphragmaticus);
  36. Cervical plexus (plexus cervicalis);
  37. Thoracic aorta (pars thoracica aortae);
  38. Posterior intercostal arteries (arteriae intercostales posterioris);
  39. Superior vena cava (vena cava superior);
  40. Brachiocephalic veins (venae brachiocephalicae);
  41. Internal jugular vein (vena jugularis interna);
  42. Subclavian veins (venae subclaviae);
  43. Internal thoracic vein (vena thoracica interna);
  44. Azygos vein (vena azygos);
  45. Hemiazygos vein (vena hemiazygos);
  46. Abdominal aorta (pars thoracica aortae);
  47. Coeliac trunk (truncus coeliacus);
  48. Left gastric artery (arteria gastrica sinistra);
  49. Common hepatic artery (arteria hepatica communis);
  50. Proper hepatic artery (arteria hepatica propria);
  51. Right gastric artery (arteria gastrica dextra);
  52. Right gastroepiploic artery (arteria gastroepiploica dextra);
  53. Gastroduodenal artery (arteria gastroduodenalis);
  54. Splenic artery (arteria lienalis);
  55. Left gastroepiploic artery (arteria gastroepiploica sinistra);
  56. Superior mesenteric artery (arteria mesenterica superior);
  57. Jejunal arteries (arteriae jejunales);
  58. Ileal arteries (arteriae ileales);
  59. Right colic artery (arteria colica dextra);
  60. Middle colic artery (arteria colica media);
  61. Inferior mesenteric artery (arteria mesenterica inferior);
  62. Left colic artery (arteria colica sinistra);
  63. Sigmoid arteries (arteriae sigmoideae);
  64. Superior rectal artery (arteria rectalis superior);
  65. Renal artery (arteria renalis);
  66. Median sacral artery (arteria sacralis mediana);
  67. Ovarian (testicular) artery (arteria ovarica (testicularis));
  68. Lumbar arteries (arteriae lumbales);
  69. Common iliac artery (arteria iliaca communis);
  70. External iliac artery (arteria iliaca externa);
  71. Internal iliac artery (arteria iliaca interna);
  72. Umbilical artery (arteria umbilicalis);
  73. Middle rectal artery (arteria rectalis media);
  74. Uterine (ductus deferentis) artery (arteria uterina (ductus deferentis))
  75. Obturator artery (arteria obturatoria);
  76. Iliolumbar artery (arteria iliolumbalis);
  77. Lateral sacral artery (arteria sacralis lateralis);
  78. Superior gluteal artery (arteria glutea superior);
  79. Inferior gluteal artery (arteria glutea inferior);
  80. Inferior epigastric artery (arteria epigastrica inferior);
  81. Inferior vena cava (vena cava inferior);
  82. Lumbar veins (venae lumbales);
  83. Testicular (ovarian) vein (vena testicularis (ovarica));
  84. Renal vein (vena renalis);
  85. Common iliac veins (vena iliaca communis);
  86. External iliac vein (vena iliaca externa);
  87. Internal iliac vein (vena iliaca interna);
  88. Portal vein (vena portae);
  89. Superior mesenteric vein (vena mesenterica superior);
  90. Splenic vena (vena splenic);
  91. Inferior mesenteric vein (vena mesenterica inferior)

The vessels of the upper limb.

Importance:

         The arteries of the upper limb, being the continuation of the subclavian artery, supply to the region of the shoulder girdle and free upper limb.

         The arm is the organ of labor therefore, it often undergoes to different traumas and diseases that often requires various surgical manipulations. Thus, the doctors, especially surgeons, must know the anatomy of the arm`s vessels very well.

Before the study of the topic you should know:

  1. The topography and branches of the subclavian artery;
  2. The muscles of the shoulder girdle and upper limb (see in Myology textbook)
  3. Topography of the uper limb

Questions:

  1. Describe the topography of the axillary artery, its beginning and end.
  2. What parts of the axillary artery are distinguished?
  3. Describe the branches of the axillary artery in the trigonum clavipectorale.
  4. Describe the branches of the axillary artery in the trigonum pectorale.
  5. Describe the branches of the axillary artery in the trigonum subpectorale.
  6. Describe the regions which are supplied blood by the branches of the axillary artery.
  7. Describe the anastomoses between the branches of the axillary and subclavian arteries.
  8. Describe the topography of the brachial artery, its beginning and end.
  9. Describe the branches of the brachial artery.
  10. Describe the regions which are supplied blood by the branches of the brachial artery.
  11. Describe the topography of the radial artery, its beginning and termination.
  12. Describe the branches of the radial artery.
  13. Describe the regions which are supplied blood by the branches of the radial artery.
  14. Describe the topography of the ulnar artery, its beginning and termination.
  15. Describe the branches of the ulnar artery.
  16. Describe the regions which are supplied blood by the branches of the ulnar artery.
  17. Describe the anastomoses between the branches of brachial artery and the branches of radial and ulnar artery around the elbow.
  18. Describe the anastomoses between the branches of ulnar and radial arteries in the forearm.
  19. Describe the formation of the superficial palmar arch, its topography and branches.
  20. Describe the formation of the deep palmar arch, its topography and branches.
  21. Describe the anastomoses between the branches of ulnar and radial arteries in the hand.
  22. Describe the superficial veins of the upper limb (beginning from the veins of the hand), their topography and merger.
  23. Where do the median antebrachial vein, cephalic and basilic veins drain into?
  24. Describe the deep veins of the upper limb (beginning from the veins of the hand), their topography, merger and number.
  25.  Where do the brachial veins drain into?
  26. Describe the topography, beginning and end of the axillary vein.
  27. Describe the tributaries of the axillary vein.

Practice:

  1. Axillary artery (arteria axillaris);
  2. Brachial artery (arteria brachialis);
  3. Radial artery (arteria radialis);
  4. Ulnar artery (arteria ulnaris);
  5. Superior thoracic artery (arteria thoracica superior);
  6. Thoracoacromial artery (arteria thoracoacromialis);
  7. Lateral thoracic artery (arteria thoracica lateralis);
  8. Subscapular artery (arteria subscapularis);
  9. Posterior circumflex humeral artery (arteria curcumflexa humeri posterior);
  10. Anterior circumflex humeral artery (arteria curcumflexa humeri anterior);
  11. Deep brachial artery (arteria profunda brachii);
  12. Common interosseous artery (arteria interossea communis);
  13. Superficial and deep palmar arches;
  14. Cephalic vein (vena cephalica);
  15. Basilic vein (vena basilica);
  16. Ulnar veins (venae ulnares);
  17. Radial veins (venae radiales);
  18. Brachial veins (venae brachiales);
  19. Axillary vein (vena axillaris)

To print the diagram for the topic click here Arteries of upper extremity (anterior aspect); Arteries of upper extremity (posterior aspect)

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

 

The arteries and veins of the lower limb

 

Importance: the doctors of different specialties often face pathology of the lower limb vessels (obliterating endarteritis, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, trauma etc). To make a correct diagnosis, determine the location of the pathological process exactly and to find rational method of treatment, doctors must know the anatomy of the lower limb vessels in details. Also, a doctor of any specialty needs to know the location of the lower limb lymph nodes. This allows to make a correct diagnosis and to predict probable ways of the tumor distribution.

 

Before you start to study the topic you need to know:

  1. The topography and branches of the external iliac artery;
  2. The muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limb (see in Myology textbook).
  3. Topography of the lower limb

 

Questions:

  1. Describe the topography of the femoral artery, its beginning and end.
  2. Describe the branches of the femoral artery.
  3. Describe the regions which are supplied blood by the femoral artery branches.
  4. Describe the branches of the deep femoral artery.
  5. Describe the regions which are supplied blood by the deep femoral artery branches.
  6. Describe the anastomoses of the femoral artery branches.
  7. Describe the topography of the popliteal artery, its beginning and end.
  8. Describe the branches of the popliteal artery.
  9. Describe the regions which are supplied by the branches of the popliteal artery.
  10. Describe the topography of the posterior tibial artery, its beginning and end.
  11. Describe the branches of the posterior tibial artery.
  12. Describe the regions which are supplied by the branches of the posterior tibial artery.
  13. Describe the topography of the anterior tibial artery, its beginning and end.
  14. Describe the branches of the anterior tibial artery.
  15. Describe the regions which are supplied by the branches of the anterior tibial artery.
  16. Describe the formation of the plantar arch, its topography and branches.
  17. Describe the blood supply of the dorsal surface of the foot.
  18. Describe the anastomoses of the lower limb`s arteries: around the hip joint, around the knee joint, malleolar anastomoses, anastomoses of foot.
  19. Describe the blood supply of the toes.
  20. Which arteries form the genicular network; malleolar network?
  21. Describe the superficial veins of the lower limb (beginning from the veins of the foot), their topography and merger.
  22. Describe the deep veins of the lower limb (beginning from the veins of the foot), their topography, merger and number.
  23. Where does the femoral vein drain?

Practice:

  1. Femoral artery (arteria femoralis);
  2. Deep femoral artery (arteria femoralis profunda);
  3. Superficial epigastric artery (arteria epigastrica superficialis);
  4. Superficial circumflex iliac artery (arteria circumflexa ilium superficialis);
  5. External pudendal arteries (arteriae pudendae internae);
  6. Popliteal artery (arteria poplitea);
  7. Lateral superior genicular artery (arteria genus superior lateralis);
  8. Medial superior genicular artery (arteria genus superior medialis);
  9. Lateral inferior genicular artery (arteria genus inferior lateralis);
  10. Medial inferior genicular artery (arteria genus inferior medialis);
  11. Posterior tibial artery (arteria tibialis posterior);
  12. Anterior tibial artery (arteria tibialis anterior);
  13. Medial plantar artery (arteria planatris medialis);
  14. Lateral plantar artery (arteria planatris lateralis);
  15. Dorsalis pedis artery (arteria dorsalis pedis);
  16. Long saphenous vein (vena saphena magna);
  17. Short saphenous vein (vena saphena parva);
  18. Femoral vein (vena femoralis)

To print the diagram for the topic click here Arteries of lower extremity (anterior aspect); Arteries of lower extremity (posterior aspect)

To watch the videos for the topic click here Videomaterials

 

The lymphatic system.

Importance: The lymphatic system comprises lymphatic capillaries, small and large lymphatic vessels, and also lymphatic nodes located on the way of lymphatic vessels. Together with the veins, lymphatic system forms the system which drains the organs, i.e. provides the absorption of water, solution of proteins, emulsion of lipids from tissues; also it provides the removal of the products of cell disruption, microbes and other particles. Besides, it carries out lymphopoetic function (the formation of lymphoid elements) and protective function.

Via lymphatic system tumors can distribute. Different parts of the lymphatic system often undergo pathological processes (tumors, lymphadenitis, damages, block of lymphatic ways etc).

To predict the ways of the tumor distribution or inflammatory process, the doctors need to know the anatomy of the lymphatic system very well.

Questions:

  1. Give the definition of the lymphatic and immune systems.
  2. Which organs do these systems contain?
  3. Describe classification of the lymphatic and immune systems.
  4. Describe the ways of the lymph transport.
  5. What are the differences in location between the superficial and deep lymphatic vessels.
  6. Name and describe the lymphatic trunks.
  7. Describe the topography of the lymphatic ducts. Where are they flow into?
  8. Describe the structure of lymphatic and immune organs: bony red marrow, thymus, spleen, tonsils.
  9. Describe the structure of the lymph nodes and their function.
  10. Describe the groups of the lymph nodes and the lymph vessels of the upper limb.
  11. Describe the groups of the lymph nodes and the lymph vessels of the lower limb.
  12. Describe the groups of the lymph nodes and the lymph vessels of the pelvis.
  13. Describe the groups of the lymph nodes and the lymph vessels of the abdominal cavity.
  14. Describe the groups of the lymph nodes and the lymph vessels of the thoracic cavity.
  15. Describe the lymph drainage of the upper limb.
  16. Describe the lymph drainage of the lower limb.
  17. Describe the lymph drainage of the pelvis.
  18. Describe the lymph drainage of the abdominal cavity.
  19. Describe the lymph drainage of the thoracic cavity.

 

 

 

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